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Scientific:
   Lepidosauria (lepidosaurs) 

Synonyms:
   Lepidosauria 
   Reptilia (reptiles) 
   lizards 
   reptiles 

Broader Terms:
   Amniota 
   Chordata (Chordate) 
   Sauria (lizards) 
   Sauropsida 
   Vertebrata (vertebrates) 

More Specific:
   Agama (Typical Agamas) 
   Amphisbaenia (Worm Lizards) 
   Anapsida 
   Bitis nasicornis (Rhinoceros Viper) 
   Caenophidia 
   Chelonia (green sea turtles) 
   Crocodilia (caimans) 
   Crocodylia 
   Dendroaspis jamesoni (Jameson's Mamba) 
   Diapsida (Diapsid) 
   Kinixys belliana (Bell's Hingeback Tortoise) 
   Lygodactylus picturatus (Painted Dwarf Gecko) 
   Mabuia 
   Mabuya perrotetii (Teita Mabuya) 
   Mabuya raddoni 
   Rhynchocephalia (tuataras) 
   Sauria (lizards) 
   Serpentes (snakes) 
   Sphenodontia 
   Squamata (snakes) 
   Testudines (terrapins) 
   Typhlops (Diard's blindsnake) 
   Unassigned 
   Varanus niloticus (Nile Monitor) 
 
 


Crocodilia
Ivan Mik?Ýk - BioLib

External Resources:



1.  First evidence of convergent lifestyle signal in reptile skull roof microanatomy.LinkIT
Ebel R, M├╝ller J, Ramm T, Hipsley C, Amson E
BMC biology, 2020
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=0

2.  Anatomical and histological analyses reveal that tail repair is coupled with regrowth in wild-caught, juvenile American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis).LinkIT
Xu C, Palade J, Fisher RE, Smith CI, Clark AR, Sampson S, Bourgeois R, Rawls A, Elsey RM, Wilson-Rawls J, Kusumi K
Scientific reports, 2020
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=0

3.  Vocalization by extant nonavian reptiles: A synthetic overview of phonation and the vocal apparatus.LinkIT
Russell AP, Bauer AM
Anatomical record (Hoboken, N.J. : 2007) Anat Rec (Hoboken) Vocalization by extant nonavian reptiles: A synthetic overview of phonation and the vocal apparatus. 10.1002/ar.24553 Among amniote vertebrates, nonavian reptiles (chelonians, crocodilians, and lepidosaurs) are regarded as using vocal signals rarely (compared to birds and mammals). In all three reptilian clades, however, certain taxa emit distress calls and advertisement calls using modifications of regions of the upper respiratory tract. There is no central tendency in either acoustic mechanisms or the structure of the vocal apparatus, and many taxa that vocalize emit only relatively simple sounds. Available evidence indicates multiple origins of true vocal abilities within these lineages. Reptiles thus provide opportunities for studying the early evolutionary stages of vocalization. The early literature on the diversity of form of the laryngotracheal apparatus of reptiles boded well for the study of form-function relationships, but this potential was not extensively explored. Emphasis shifted away from anatomy, however, and centered instead on acoustic analysis of the sounds that are produced. New investigative techniques have provided novel ways of studying the form-function aspects of the structures involved in phonation and have brought anatomical investigation to the forefront again. In this review we summarize what is known about hearing in reptiles in order to contextualize the vocal signals they generate and the sound-producing mechanisms responsible for them. The diversity of form of the sound producing apparatus and the increasing evidence that reptiles are more dependent upon vocalization as a communication medium than previously thought indicates that they have a significant role to play in the understanding of the evolution of vocalization in amniotes. ┬ę 2020 American Association for Anatomy. Russell Anthony P AP https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6659-6765 Department of Biological Sciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada. Bauer Aaron M AM Department of Biology and Center for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Stewardship, Villanova University, Villanova, Pennsylvania, USA. eng A9745-2008 Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada Journal Article Review 2020 10 25 United States Anat Rec (Hoboken) 101292775 1932-8486 IM Chelonia Crocodylia Lepidosauria Squamata advertisement calls distress calls hearing larynx 2020 05 09 2020 08 13 2020 09 16 2020 10 26 6 0 2020 10 26 6 0 2020 10 25 20 17 aheadofprint 33099849 10.1002/ar.24553 REFERENCES, 2020</i></font><br><font color=#008000>http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=0<br></font></span><br>4.  <a href=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=0 class=title>When one tail isn't enough: abnormal caudal regeneration in <b>lepidosaurs</b> and its potential ecological impacts.</a><a href=http://ubio.org/tools/linkit.php?map%5B%5D=all&link_type=2&url=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=0><img src=linkit.png border=0 title='LinkIT' alt='LinkIT'></a> <br><span class=j>Barr JI, Somaweera R, Godfrey SS, Gardner MG, Bateman PW<br><font color=gray><i>Biological reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc When one tail isn't enough: abnormal caudal regeneration in lepidosaurs and its potential ecological impacts. 1479-1496 10.1111/brv.12625 Abnormal caudal regeneration, the production of additional tails through regeneration events, occurs in lepidosaurs as a result of incomplete autotomy or sufficient caudal wound. Despite being widely known to occur, documented events generally are limited to opportunistic single observations - hindering the understanding of the ecological importance of caudal regeneration. Here we compiled and reviewed a robust global database of both peer-reviewed and non-peer reviewed records of abnormal regeneration events in lepidosaurs published over the last 400?years. Using this database, we qualitatively and quantitatively assessed the occurrence and characteristics of abnormal tail regeneration among individuals, among species, and among populations. We identified 425 observations from 366 records pertaining to 175 species of lepidosaurs across 22 families from 63 different countries. At an individual level, regenerations ranged from bifurcations to hexafurcations; from normal regeneration from the original tail to multiple regenerations arising from a single point; and from growth from the distal third to the proximal third of the tail. Species showing abnormal regenerations included those with intra-vertebral, inter-vertebral or no autotomy planes, indicating that abnormal regenerations evidently occur across lepidosaurs regardless of whether the species demonstrates caudal autotomy or not. Within populations, abnormal regenerations were estimated at a mean ┬▒ SD of 2.75 ┬▒?3.41% (range 0.1-16.7%). There is a significant lack of experimental studies to understand the potential ecological impacts of regeneration on the fitness and life history of individuals and populations. We hypothesised that abnormal regeneration may affect lepidosaurs via influencing kinematics of locomotion, restrictions in escape mechanisms, anti-predation tactics, and intra- and inter-specific signalling. Behaviourally testing these hypotheses would be an important future research direction. ┬ę 2020 Cambridge Philosophical Society. Barr James I JI https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0030-7737 Behavioural Ecology Laboratory, School of Molecular and Life Sciences, Curtin University, Kent Street, Bentley, WA, 6102, Australia. CSIRO Health and Biosecurity, 147 Underwood Avenue, Floreat, WA, 6014, Australia. Somaweera Ruchira R https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7470-8736 CSIRO Health and Biosecurity, 147 Underwood Avenue, Floreat, WA, 6014, Australia. Godfrey Stephanie S SS https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1014-4684 Department of Zoology, University of Otago, 340 Great King Street, North Dunedin, Dunedin, 9016, New Zealand. Gardner Michael G MG https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8629-354X College of Science and Engineering, Flinders University, Sturt Road, Bedford Park, SA, 5042, Australia. The Evolutionary Biology Unit, South Australian Museum, North Terrace, Adelaide, SA, 5000, Australia. Bateman Philip W PW https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3036-5479 Behavioural Ecology Laboratory, School of Molecular and Life Sciences, Curtin University, Kent Street, Bentley, WA, 6102, Australia. eng Journal Article 2020 06 25 England Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 0414576 0006-3231 IM abnormal regeneration autotomy bifid caudal furcation lizard multifurcation regeneration tail 2019 12 20 2020 05 22 2020 05 25 2020 6 26 6 0 2020 6 26 6 0 2020 6 26 6 0 ppublish 32583608 10.1111/brv.12625 REFERENCES, 2020</i></font><br><font color=#008000>http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=0<br></font></span><br>5.  <a href=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=0 class=title>Structure and topology of the linkers in the conserved lepidosaur ?-keratin chain with four 34-residue repeats support an interfilament role for the central linker.</a><a href=http://ubio.org/tools/linkit.php?map%5B%5D=all&link_type=2&url=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=0><img src=linkit.png border=0 title='LinkIT' alt='LinkIT'></a> <br><span class=j>Parry DAD<br><font color=gray><i>Journal of structural biology, 2020</i></font><br><font color=#008000>http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=0<br></font></span><br>6.  <a href=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=0 class=title>Armored with skin and bone: A combined histological and ?CT-study of the exceptional integument of the Antsingy leaf chameleon Brookesia perarmata (Angel, 1933).</a><a href=http://ubio.org/tools/linkit.php?map%5B%5D=all&link_type=2&url=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=0><img src=linkit.png border=0 title='LinkIT' alt='LinkIT'></a> <br><span class=j>Schucht PJ, R├╝hr PT, Geier B, Glaw F, Lambertz M<br><font color=gray><i>Journal of morphology J Morphol Armored with skin and bone: A combined histological and ?CT-study of the exceptional integument of the Antsingy leaf chameleon Brookesia perarmata (Angel, 1933). 754-764 10.1002/jmor.21135 Madagascar's endemic ground-dwelling leaf chameleons (Brookesiinae: Brookesia Gray, 1865 + Palleon Glaw, et al., Salamandra, 2013, 49, pp. 237-238) form the sister taxon to all other chameleons (i.e., the Chamaeleoninae). They possess a limited ability of color change, a rather dull coloration, and a nonprehensile tail assisting locomotion in the leaf litter on the forest floor. Most Brookesia species can readily be recognized by peculiar spiky dorsolateral projections ("R├╝ckens├Ąge"), which are caused by an aberrant vertebral structure and might function as body armor to prevent predation. In addition to a pronounced R├╝ckens├Ąge, the Antsingy leaf chameleon Brookesia perarmata (Angel, 1933) exhibits conspicuous, acuminate tubercle scales on the lateral flanks and extremities, thereby considerably enhancing the overall armored appearance. Such structures are exceptional within the Chamaeleonidae and despite an appreciable interest in the integument of chameleons in general, the morphology of these integumentary elements remains shrouded in mystery. Using various conventional and petrographic histological approaches combined with ?CT-imaging, we reveal that the tubercle scales consist of osseous, multicusped cores that are embedded within the dermis. Based on this, they consequently can be interpreted as osteoderms, which to the best of our knowledge is the first record of such for the entire Chamaeleonidae and only the second one for the entire clade Iguania. The combination of certain aspects of tissue composition (especially the presence of large, interconnected, and marrow-filled cavities) together with the precise location within the dermis (being completely enveloped by the stratum superficiale), however, discriminate the osteoderms of B. perarmata from those known for all other lepidosaurs. ┬ę 2020 The Authors. Journal of Morphology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Schucht Pia J PJ 0000-0002-8853-3092 Institut f├╝r Zoologie, Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universit├Ąt Bonn, Poppelsdorfer Schloss, Bonn, Germany. R├╝hr Peter T PT 0000-0003-2776-6172 AG Morphologische Dynamiken, Institut f├╝r Zoologie, Biozentrum, Universit├Ąt zu K├Âln, K├Âln, Germany. Zentrum f├╝r Molekulare Biodiversit├Ątsforschung, Zoologisches Forschungsmuseum Alexander Koenig, Bonn, Germany. Geier Benedikt B 0000-0002-2942-2624 Max Planck Institute for Marine Microbiology, Bremen, Germany. Glaw Frank F Sektion Herpetologie, Zoologische Staatssammlung M├╝nchen (ZSM-SNSB), Munich, Germany. Lambertz Markus M 0000-0001-8348-9347 Institut f├╝r Zoologie, Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universit├Ąt Bonn, Poppelsdorfer Schloss, Bonn, Germany. Sektion Herpetologie, Zoologisches Forschungsmuseum Alexander Koenig, Bonn, Germany. eng Journal Article 2020 05 19 United States J Morphol 0406125 0022-2887 IM 3D morphology Brookesiinae Chamaeleonidae histology integument osteoderm 2020 03 19 2020 04 12 2020 04 17 2020 5 20 6 0 2020 5 20 6 0 2020 5 20 6 0 ppublish 32427377 10.1002/jmor.21135 REFERENCES, 2020</i></font><br><font color=#008000>http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=0<br></font></span><br>7.  <a href=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=0 class=title>A giant soft-shelled egg from the Late Cretaceous of Antarctica.</a><a href=http://ubio.org/tools/linkit.php?map%5B%5D=all&link_type=2&url=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=0><img src=linkit.png border=0 title='LinkIT' alt='LinkIT'></a> <br><span class=j>Legendre LJ, Rubilar-Rogers D, Musser GM, Davis SN, Otero RA, Vargas AO, Clarke JA<br><font color=gray><i>Nature, 2020</i></font><br><font color=#008000>http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=0<br></font></span><br>8.  <a href=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=0 class=title>Bite force data suggests relationship between acrodont tooth implantation and strong bite force.</a><a href=http://ubio.org/tools/linkit.php?map%5B%5D=all&link_type=2&url=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=0><img src=linkit.png border=0 title='LinkIT' alt='LinkIT'></a> <br><span class=j>Jenkins KM, Shaw JO<br><font color=gray><i>PeerJ, 2020</i></font><br><font color=#008000>http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=0<br></font></span><br>9.  <a href=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=0 class=title>The internal cranial anatomy of Champsosaurus (Choristodera: Champsosauridae): Implications for neurosensory function.</a><a href=http://ubio.org/tools/linkit.php?map%5B%5D=all&link_type=2&url=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=0><img src=linkit.png border=0 title='LinkIT' alt='LinkIT'></a> <br><span class=j>Dudgeon TW, Maddin HC, Evans DC, Mallon JC<br><font color=gray><i>Scientific reports, 2020</i></font><br><font color=#008000>http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=0<br></font></span><br>10.  <a href=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=0 class=title>Convergent Evolution of Cysteine-Rich Keratins in Hard Skin Appendages of Terrestrial Vertebrates.</a><a href=http://ubio.org/tools/linkit.php?map%5B%5D=all&link_type=2&url=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=0><img src=linkit.png border=0 title='LinkIT' alt='LinkIT'></a> <br><span class=j>Ehrlich F, Lachner J, Hermann M, Tschachler E, Eckhart L<br><font color=gray><i>Molecular biology and evolution, 2020</i></font><br><font color=#008000>http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=0<br></font></span><br><br><br><table cellspacing=0 cellpadding=0 align=center><tr valign=bottom><td align=center><img src=p.png border=0></td><td align=center><img src=o_red.png border=0></td><td align=center><a href=http://ubio.org/portal/index.php?search=lepidosaurs&category=l&client=pubmed&startPage=2><img src=o_yellow.png border=0></a></td><td align=center><a href=http://ubio.org/portal/index.php?search=lepidosaurs&category=l&client=pubmed&startPage=3><img src=o_yellow.png border=0></a></td><td align=center><a href=http://ubio.org/portal/index.php?search=lepidosaurs&category=l&client=pubmed&startPage=4><img src=o_yellow.png border=0></a></td><td align=center><a href=http://ubio.org/portal/index.php?search=lepidosaurs&category=l&client=pubmed&startPage=5><img src=o_yellow.png border=0></a></td><td align=center><a href=http://ubio.org/portal/index.php?search=lepidosaurs&category=l&client=pubmed&startPage=6><img src=o_yellow.png border=0></a></td><td align=center><a href=http://ubio.org/portal/index.php?search=lepidosaurs&category=l&client=pubmed&startPage=7><img src=o_yellow.png border=0></a></td><td align=center><a href=http://ubio.org/portal/index.php?search=lepidosaurs&category=l&client=pubmed&startPage=8><img src=o_yellow.png border=0></a></td><td align=center><a href=http://ubio.org/portal/index.php?search=lepidosaurs&category=l&client=pubmed&startPage=2><img src=rtal.png border=0></a></td></tr><td align=center></td><td align=center>1</td><td align=center><a href=http://ubio.org/portal/index.php?search=lepidosaurs&category=l&client=pubmed&startPage=2>2</a></td><td align=center><a href=http://ubio.org/portal/index.php?search=lepidosaurs&category=l&client=pubmed&startPage=3>3</a></td><td align=center><a href=http://ubio.org/portal/index.php?search=lepidosaurs&category=l&client=pubmed&startPage=4>4</a></td><td align=center><a href=http://ubio.org/portal/index.php?search=lepidosaurs&category=l&client=pubmed&startPage=5>5</a></td><td align=center><a href=http://ubio.org/portal/index.php?search=lepidosaurs&category=l&client=pubmed&startPage=6>6</a></td><td align=center><a href=http://ubio.org/portal/index.php?search=lepidosaurs&category=l&client=pubmed&startPage=7>7</a></td><td align=center><a href=http://ubio.org/portal/index.php?search=lepidosaurs&category=l&client=pubmed&startPage=8>8</a></td><td align=center><a href=http://ubio.org/portal/index.php?search=lepidosaurs&category=l&client=pubmed&startPage=2>┬╗</a></td></tr></table></table></tr></table></td><script src="http://www.google-analytics.com/urchin.js" type="text/javascript"> </script> <script type="text/javascript"> _uacct = "UA-634822-1"; urchinTracker(); </script> </BODY> </HTML>