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Scientific:
   Holothuroidea (holothurians) 

Synonyms:
   Holothurioidea 
   Holothuroidea (sea cucumbers) 

Broader Terms:
   Cryptosyringida 
   Echinodermata (echinoderms) 
   Echinozoa 

More Specific:
   Apodacea 
   Apodida 
   Aspidochirotacea 
   Aspidochirotida 
   Dendrochirotacea 
   Dendrochirotida 
   Elasipodida 
   Molpadiida 
 
 


Holothuroidea
Guiamarina

External Resources:



1.  Dedifferentiation of radial glia-like cells is observed in in vitro explants of holothurian radial nerve cord.LinkIT
Quesada-Díaz E, Figueroa-Delgado P, García-Rosario R, Sirfa A, García-Arrarás JE
Journal of neuroscience methods, 2021
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=0

2.  Sea cucumbers of the Arabian Peninsula and Iran - A review of historical and current research trends.LinkIT
Al-Yaqout A, Nithyanandan M, Al-Yamani F, Al-Kandari M, Al-Roumi M, Al-Baz A
Saudi journal of biological sciences, 2021
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=0

3.  Sophistication in a seemingly simple creature: a review of wild holothurian nutrition in marine ecosystems.LinkIT
Pierrat J, Bédier A, Eeckhaut I, Magalon H, Frouin P
Biological reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical SocietyBiol Rev Camb Philos SocSophistication in a seemingly simple creature: a review of wild holothurian nutrition in marine ecosystems.10.1111/brv.12799Holothurians are marine invertebrates that are among the most widespread benthic megafauna communities by both biomass and abundance in shallow-water and deep-sea ecosystems, their functions supporting important ecological services worldwide. Despite their simple appearance as sea cucumbers, holothurians show a wide range of feeding practices. However, information on what and how these animals eat is scattered and potentially confusing. We provide a comprehensive review of holothurian nutrition in coastal and deep-sea ecosystems. First, we describe morphological aspects of holothurian feeding and the ultrastructure of tentacles. We discuss the two processes for food capture, concluding that mucus adhesion is likely the main method; two mucous cells, type-1 and type-2, possibly allow the adhesion and de-adhesion, respectively, of food particles. Secondly, this review aims to clarify behavioural aspects of holothurian suspension- and deposit-feeding. We discuss the daily feeding cycle, and selective feeding strategies. We conclude that there is selectivity for fine and organically rich particles, and that feeding through the cloaca is also a route for nutrient absorption. Third, we provide a wide description of the diet of holothurians, which can be split into two categories: living and non-living material. We suggest that Synallactida, Molpadida, Persiculida, Holothuriida and Elasipodida, ingest the same fractions, and emphasise the importance of bacteria in the diet of holothurians.© 2021 The Authors. Biological Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Cambridge Philosophical Society.PierratJoséphineJhttps://orcid.org/0000-0002-4627-9823UMR ENTROPIE (IRD, CNRS, Univ. Reunion, Ifremer, Univ. New Caledonia), University of La Réunion, St-Denis, 97 400, France.BédierAlexandreANutrima Production, Le Port, 97 420, France.EeckhautIgorIBiology of Marine Organisms and Biomimetism Lab, University of Mons, Mons, 7000, Belgium.MagalonHélèneHUMR ENTROPIE (IRD, CNRS, Univ. Reunion, Ifremer, Univ. New Caledonia), University of La Réunion, St-Denis, 97 400, France.Labex Corail, Perpignan, 66 000, France.FrouinPatrickPUMR ENTROPIE (IRD, CNRS, Univ. Reunion, Ifremer, Univ. New Caledonia), University of La Réunion, St-Denis, 97 400, France.Labex Corail, Perpignan, 66 000, France.engEuropean UnionFonds européen de développement régionalJournal Article20211013EnglandBiol Rev Camb Philos Soc04145760006-3231IMbud epidermisdietaryholothuriansmucous cellplastic particlesproteobacteriaselective feedingtentacle ultrastructuretrophic mode2021091520201024202109202021101465720211015602021101560aheadofprint3464740110.1111/brv.12799REFERENCES, 2021</i></font><br><font color=#008000>http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=0<br></font></span><br>4.  <a href=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=0 class=title>Morphospace.</a><a href=http://ubio.org/tools/linkit.php?map%5B%5D=all&link_type=2&url=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=0><img src=linkit.png border=0 title='LinkIT' alt='LinkIT'></a> <br><span class=j>Budd GE<br><font color=gray><i>Current biology : CB, 2021</i></font><br><font color=#008000>http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=0<br></font></span><br>5.  <a href=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=0 class=title>Characterization of the complete mitochondrial genome of <i>Thyonella gemmata</i> (Echinodermata: Cucumariidae).</a><a href=http://ubio.org/tools/linkit.php?map%5B%5D=all&link_type=2&url=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=0><img src=linkit.png border=0 title='LinkIT' alt='LinkIT'></a> <br><span class=j>Figueroa AC, McHugh WJ, Miller SM, Fellgren AK, Bogantes VE, Janosik AM<br><font color=gray><i>Mitochondrial DNA. Part B, Resources, 2021</i></font><br><font color=#008000>http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=0<br></font></span><br>6.  <a href=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=0 class=title>Feeding Characteristics of Deep-Sea Acorn Worm (Hemichordata, Enteropneusta, Torquaratoridae) from the Bering Sea.</a><a href=http://ubio.org/tools/linkit.php?map%5B%5D=all&link_type=2&url=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=0><img src=linkit.png border=0 title='LinkIT' alt='LinkIT'></a> <br><span class=j>Ezhova OV, Trukhan MA, Lukinykh AI, Krylova EM, Galkin SV, Gebruk AV, Malakhov VV<br><font color=gray><i>Doklady biological sciences : proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological sciences sectionsDokl Biol SciFeeding Characteristics of Deep-Sea Acorn Worm (Hemichordata, Enteropneusta, Torquaratoridae) from the Bering Sea.149-15210.1134/S0012496621050033Deep-sea hemichordates Torquaratoridae gen. sp. reach high abundance up to 12 spec. m-2 at the depths of 1830-2130 m on the slope of the Volcanologists Massif in the south-western part of the Bering Sea, dominating in the benthic community at these depths. Their abundance exceeds by two orders the values recorded earlier. In order to clarify this phenomenon, we examined the gut contents of Torquaratoridae gen. sp. The detritus particles and frustules of planktonic diatoms Thalassiosira, Coscinodiscus, Actinocyclus, Chaetoceros, Neodenticula, and Grammatophora were the most common in the gut, as well as the remains of skeletons of benthic invertebrates with little admixture of mineral particles. According to obtained data, Torquaratoridae gen. sp. are mobile deposit feeders with high selectivity to fresh phytodetritus, able to compete with holothurians occupying similar trophic niche. Unusually high abundance of acorn worms is apparently related to high organic matter flux to the seafloor as a result of spring phytoplankton bloom in the surface water layer of the Bering Sea.© 2021. Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.EzhovaO VOVMoscow State University, 119991, Moscow, Russia. olga.ejova@gmail.com.TrukhanM AMAMoscow State University, 119991, Moscow, Russia.LukinykhA IAIMoscow State University, 119991, Moscow, Russia.KrylovaE MEMShirshov Institute of Oceanology, Russian Academy of Sciences, 117218, Moscow, Russia.GalkinS VSVShirshov Institute of Oceanology, Russian Academy of Sciences, 117218, Moscow, Russia.GebrukA VAVShirshov Institute of Oceanology, Russian Academy of Sciences, 117218, Moscow, Russia.MalakhovV VVVMoscow State University, 119991, Moscow, Russia.engJournal Article20211103United StatesDokl Biol Sci75054590012-4966IMBering SeaDiatomeaEnteropneustaTorquaratoridaedeposit feedersgut contents20210425202106192021061920211131729202111460202111460ppublish3473138010.1134/S001249662105003310.1134/S0012496621050033REFERENCES, 2021</i></font><br><font color=#008000>http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=0<br></font></span><br>7.  <a href=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=0 class=title>Four new dendrochirotid <b>holothurians</b> collected from the Seto Inland Sea and the western part of the Sea of Japan, western Japan.</a><a href=http://ubio.org/tools/linkit.php?map%5B%5D=all&link_type=2&url=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=0><img src=linkit.png border=0 title='LinkIT' alt='LinkIT'></a> <br><span class=j>Yamana Y, Nakaguchi K, Yamaguchi S, Katoh M, Ogawa A, Ohtsuka S<br><font color=gray><i>Zootaxa, 2021</i></font><br><font color=#008000>http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=0<br></font></span><br>8.  <a href=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=0 class=title>Unusual Structures and Cytotoxicities of Chitonoidosides A, A<sub>1</sub>, B, C, D, and E, Six Triterpene Glycosides from the Far Eastern Sea Cucumber <i>Psolus chitonoides</i>.</a><a href=http://ubio.org/tools/linkit.php?map%5B%5D=all&link_type=2&url=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=0><img src=linkit.png border=0 title='LinkIT' alt='LinkIT'></a> <br><span class=j>Silchenko AS, Kalinovsky AI, Avilov SA, Andrijaschenko PV, Popov RS, Dmitrenok PS, Chingizova EA, Kalinin VI<br><font color=gray><i>Marine drugs, 2021</i></font><br><font color=#008000>http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=0<br></font></span><br>9.  <a href=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=0 class=title>Sphingolipids of Asteroidea and Holothuroidea: Structures and Biological Activities.</a><a href=http://ubio.org/tools/linkit.php?map%5B%5D=all&link_type=2&url=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=0><img src=linkit.png border=0 title='LinkIT' alt='LinkIT'></a> <br><span class=j>Malyarenko TV, Kicha AA, Stonik VA, Ivanchina NV<br><font color=gray><i>Marine drugs, 2021</i></font><br><font color=#008000>http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=0<br></font></span><br>10.  <a href=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=0 class=title>How to Wear a Sandy Coat: Secretory Cells in the Dorsal Epidermis in the Sea Cucumber <i>Holothuria atra</i> (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea).</a><a href=http://ubio.org/tools/linkit.php?map%5B%5D=all&link_type=2&url=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=0><img src=linkit.png border=0 title='LinkIT' alt='LinkIT'></a> <br><span class=j>Aruga N, Hirose E<br><font color=gray><i>Zoological science, 2021</i></font><br><font color=#008000>http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=0<br></font></span><br><br><br><table cellspacing=0 cellpadding=0 align=center><tr valign=bottom><td align=center><img src=p.png border=0></td><td align=center><img src=o_red.png border=0></td><td align=center><a href=http://ubio.org/portal/index.php?search=holothurians&category=l&client=pubmed&startPage=2><img src=o_yellow.png border=0></a></td><td align=center><a href=http://ubio.org/portal/index.php?search=holothurians&category=l&client=pubmed&startPage=3><img src=o_yellow.png border=0></a></td><td align=center><a href=http://ubio.org/portal/index.php?search=holothurians&category=l&client=pubmed&startPage=4><img src=o_yellow.png border=0></a></td><td align=center><a href=http://ubio.org/portal/index.php?search=holothurians&category=l&client=pubmed&startPage=5><img src=o_yellow.png 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align=center><a href=http://ubio.org/portal/index.php?search=holothurians&category=l&client=pubmed&startPage=2>2</a></td><td align=center><a href=http://ubio.org/portal/index.php?search=holothurians&category=l&client=pubmed&startPage=3>3</a></td><td align=center><a href=http://ubio.org/portal/index.php?search=holothurians&category=l&client=pubmed&startPage=4>4</a></td><td align=center><a href=http://ubio.org/portal/index.php?search=holothurians&category=l&client=pubmed&startPage=5>5</a></td><td align=center><a href=http://ubio.org/portal/index.php?search=holothurians&category=l&client=pubmed&startPage=6>6</a></td><td align=center><a href=http://ubio.org/portal/index.php?search=holothurians&category=l&client=pubmed&startPage=7>7</a></td><td align=center><a href=http://ubio.org/portal/index.php?search=holothurians&category=l&client=pubmed&startPage=8>8</a></td><td align=center><a href=http://ubio.org/portal/index.php?search=holothurians&category=l&client=pubmed&startPage=9>9</a></td><td align=center><a href=http://ubio.org/portal/index.php?search=holothurians&category=l&client=pubmed&startPage=10>10</a></td><td align=center><a href=http://ubio.org/portal/index.php?search=holothurians&category=l&client=pubmed&startPage=2>»</a></td></tr></table></table></tr></table></td><script src="http://www.google-analytics.com/urchin.js" type="text/javascript"> </script> <script type="text/javascript"> _uacct = "UA-634822-1"; urchinTracker(); </script> </BODY> </HTML>