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1.  Ocean warming and hypoxia affect embryonic growth, fitness and survival of small-spotted catsharks, Scyliorhinus canicula.LinkIT
Musa SM, Ripley DM, Moritz T, Shiels HA
Journal of fish biologyJ Fish BiolOcean warming and hypoxia affect embryonic growth, fitness and survival of small-spotted catsharks, Scyliorhinus canicula.257-26410.1111/jfb.14370Elasmobranchs are key to a healthy marine ecosystem but are under threat from human activities, such as destructive fisheries and shark finning. Embryos of oviparous elasmobranchs may be further challenged during development by rising temperatures and falling dissolved oxygen concentrations in their intertidal environment. However, the impact of climate change on survival and growth of oviparous elasmobranchs is still poorly understood. Here, we investigate the effects of temperature and hypoxia on the growth and survival of small-spotted catshark (Scyliorhinus canicula) embryos by incubating eggs in normoxia 15°C, normoxia 20°C, hypoxia 15°C, or hypoxia 20°C. Incubation under the elevated temperature increased the embryonic growth rate, yolk consumption rate and Fulton's condition factor at hatching, whilst decreasing the total length and body mass of newly hatched sharks. Under low oxygen conditions (50% air saturation) the survival rate of S. canicula embryos dropped significantly and the temperature-induced increase in Fulton's condition factor was reversed. Together, these data demonstrate both the individual and compound effects of elevated temperature and hypoxia on the survival and growth during early ontogeny of a ubiquitous, coastal elasmobranch, S. canicula.© 2020 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.MusaSyafiq MSMhttps://orcid.org/0000-0001-9170-2646Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, The University of Manchester, 3.15d Core Technology Facility, Manchester, UK.Marine Science Programme, Department of Earth Sciences and Environment, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Malaysia.RipleyDaniel MDMhttps://orcid.org/0000-0001-5912-6722Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, The University of Manchester, 3.15d Core Technology Facility, Manchester, UK.MoritzTimoTDeutsches Meeresmuseum, Stralsund, Germany.Institute for Zoology and Evolutionary Research, Friedrich-Schiller University of Jena, Jena, Germany.ShielsHolly AHAFaculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, The University of Manchester, 3.15d Core Technology Facility, Manchester, UK.engS.M.M. is supported by the Ministry of Higher Education (KPT, Malaysia) and Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM). D.M.R is supported by a Doctoral Training Studentship from the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council. The project was funded by the Higher Education Innovation Fund through the University of Manchester's Knowledge and Innovation Hub for Environmental Stability to H.A.S. and by the Ministry of Higher Education (KPT, Malaysia)Journal Article20200529EnglandJ Fish Biol02140550022-1112IMJ Fish Biol. 2021 Jun;98(6):155734312854AnimalsClimate ChangeEcosystemHypoxiaOceans and SeasSharksembryologyphysiologyclimate changeembryonic growthglobal warmingmermaid's purseoviparous elasmobranchsharks201912252020042620200503202051060202011246020205960ppublish3238348610.1111/jfb.14370REFERENCES, 2020</i></font><br><font color=#008000>http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=0<br></font></span><br>2.  <a href=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=0 class=title>A Case of Sirenomelia: A Mermaid Baby.</a><a 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href=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=0 class=title>The secret of the mermaid's purse: phylogenetic affinities within the Rajidae and the evolution of a novel reproductive strategy in skates.</a><a href=http://ubio.org/tools/linkit.php?map%5B%5D=all&link_type=2&url=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=0><img src=linkit.png border=0 title='LinkIT' alt='LinkIT'></a> <br><span class=j>Chiquillo KL, Ebert DA, Slager CJ, Crow KD<br><font color=gray><i>Molecular phylogenetics and evolution, 2014</i></font><br><font color=#008000>http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=0<br></font></span><br>6.  <a href=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=0 class=title>Limitations of metallothioneins in common cockles (Cerastoderma edule) and sponges (Haliclona oculata) as biomarkers of metal contamination in a semi-enclosed coastal area.</a><a href=http://ubio.org/tools/linkit.php?map%5B%5D=all&link_type=2&url=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=0><img src=linkit.png border=0 title='LinkIT' alt='LinkIT'></a> <br><span class=j>Aly W, Williams ID, Hudson MD<br><font color=gray><i>The Science of the total environment, 2014</i></font><br><font color=#008000>http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=0<br></font></span><br>7.  <a href=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=0 class=title>Metal contamination in water, sediment and biota from a semi-enclosed coastal area.</a><a href=http://ubio.org/tools/linkit.php?map%5B%5D=all&link_type=2&url=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=0><img src=linkit.png border=0 title='LinkIT' alt='LinkIT'></a> <br><span class=j>Aly W, Williams ID, Hudson MD<br><font color=gray><i>Environmental monitoring and assessment, 2013</i></font><br><font color=#008000>http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=0<br></font></span><br>8.  <a href=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=0 class=title>Darwin's monkey: why baboons can't become human.</a><a href=http://ubio.org/tools/linkit.php?map%5B%5D=all&link_type=2&url=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=0><img src=linkit.png border=0 title='LinkIT' alt='LinkIT'></a> <br><span class=j>Strum SC<br><font color=gray><i>American journal of physical anthropology, 2012</i></font><br><font color=#008000>http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=0<br></font></span><br>9.  <a href=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=0 class=title>Sirenomelia in a Nigerian triplet: a case report.</a><a href=http://ubio.org/tools/linkit.php?map%5B%5D=all&link_type=2&url=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=0><img src=linkit.png border=0 title='LinkIT' alt='LinkIT'></a> <br><span class=j>Ugwu RO, Eneh AU, Wonodi W<br><font color=gray><i>Journal of medical case reports, 2011</i></font><br><font color=#008000>http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=0<br></font></span><br>10.  <a href=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=0 class=title>Reply to Lawler: feeding competition, cooperation, and the causes of primate sociality.</a><a href=http://ubio.org/tools/linkit.php?map%5B%5D=all&link_type=2&url=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=0><img src=linkit.png border=0 title='LinkIT' alt='LinkIT'></a> <br><span class=j>Sussman RW, Garber PA, Cheverud JM<br><font color=gray><i>American journal of primatology, 2011</i></font><br><font color=#008000>http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=0<br></font></span><br><br><br><table cellspacing=0 cellpadding=0 align=center><tr valign=bottom><td align=center><img src=p.png border=0></td><td align=center><img src=o_red.png border=0></td><td align=center><a href=http://ubio.org/portal/index.php?search=Mermaid%27s+Tresses&category=l&client=pubmed&startPage=2><img src=o_yellow.png border=0></a></td><td align=center><a href=http://ubio.org/portal/index.php?search=Mermaid%27s+Tresses&category=l&client=pubmed&startPage=2><img src=rtal.png border=0></a></td></tr><td 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