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Broader Terms:
   Protostomia (Protostome) 
   Spiralia 

More Specific:
   Annelida (segmented worms) 
   Brachiopoda (lamp shells) 
   Bryozoa (Moss animal) 
   Echiura (echiuran worms) 
   Entoprocta (entoprocts) 
   Eutrochozoa 
   Lophophorata 
   Mollusca (mollusks) 
   Nemertea (proboscis worms) 
   Phoronida (horseshoe worms) 
   Sipuncula (shore worms) 
 
 
Latest Articles on Lophotrochozoa from uBioRSS


Bryozoa
Guiamarina

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1.  Key novelties in the evolution of the aquatic colonial phylum Bryozoa: evidence from soft body morphology.LinkIT
Schwaha TF, Ostrovsky AN, Wanninger A
Biological reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc Key novelties in the evolution of the aquatic colonial phylum Bryozoa: evidence from soft body morphology. 696-729 10.1111/brv.12583 Molecular techniques are currently the leading tools for reconstructing phylogenetic relationships, but our understanding of ancestral, plesiomorphic and apomorphic characters requires the study of the morphology of extant forms for testing these phylogenies and for reconstructing character evolution. This review highlights the potential of soft body morphology for inferring the evolution and phylogeny of the lophotrochozoan phylum Bryozoa. This colonial taxon comprises aquatic coelomate filter-feeders that dominate many benthic communities, both marine and freshwater. Despite having a similar bauplan, bryozoans are morphologically highly diverse and are represented by three major taxa: Phylactolaemata, Stenolaemata and Gymnolaemata. Recent molecular studies resulted in a comprehensive phylogenetic tree with the Phylactolaemata sister to the remaining two taxa, and Stenolaemata (Cyclostomata) sister to Gymnolaemata. We plotted data of soft tissue morphology onto this phylogeny in order to gain further insights into the origin of morphological novelties and character evolution in the phylum. All three larger clades have morphological apomorphies assignable to the latest molecular phylogeny. Stenolaemata (Cyclostomata) and Gymnolaemata were united as monophyletic Myolaemata because of the apomorphic myoepithelial and triradiate pharynx. One of the main evolutionary changes in bryozoans is a change from a body wall with two well-developed muscular layers and numerous retractor muscles in Phylactolaemata to a body wall with few specialized muscles and few retractors in the remaining bryozoans. Such a shift probably pre-dated a body wall calcification that evolved independently at least twice in Bryozoa and resulted in the evolution of various hydrostatic mechanisms for polypide protrusion. In Cyclostomata, body wall calcification was accompanied by a unique detachment of the peritoneum from the epidermis to form the hydrostatic membraneous sac. The digestive tract of the Myolaemata differs from the phylactolaemate condition by a distinct ciliated pylorus not present in phylactolaemates. All bryozoans have a mesodermal funiculus, which is duplicated in Gymnolaemata. A colonial system of integration (CSI) of additional, sometimes branching, funicular cords connecting neighbouring zooids via pores with pore-cell complexes evolved at least twice in Gymnolaemata. The nervous system in all bryozoans is subepithelial and concentrated at the lophophoral base and the tentacles. Tentacular nerves emerge intertentacularly in Phylactolaemata whereas they partially emanate directly from the cerebral ganglion or the circum-oral nerve ring in myolaemates. Overall, morphological evidence shows that ancestral forms were small, colonial coelomates with a muscular body wall and a U-shaped gut with ciliary tentacle crown, and were capable of asexual budding. Coloniality resulted in many novelties including the origin of zooidal polymorphism, an apomorphic landmark trait of the Myolaemata. © 2020 The Authors. Biological Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Cambridge Philosophical Society. Schwaha Thomas F TF https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0526-6791 Department of Evolutionary Biology, Integrative Zoology, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Vienna, Vienna, 1090, Austria. Ostrovsky Andrew N AN Department of Palaeontology, Faculty of Earth Sciences, Geography and Astronomy, University of Vienna, Vienna, 1090, Austria. Department of Invertebrate Zoology, Faculty of Biology, Saint Petersburg State University, Saint Petersburg, 199034, Russia. Wanninger Andreas A https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3266-5838 Department of Evolutionary Biology, Integrative Zoology, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Vienna, Vienna, 1090, Austria. eng P 32088-B Austrian Science Fund P22696-B17 Austrian Science Fund P27933-B29 Austrian Science Fund 18-14-00086 Russian Science Foundation 1.38.233.2015 Saint Petersburg State University 1.42.1099.2016 Saint Petersburg State University 1.42.739.2017 Saint Petersburg State University Journal Article 2020 02 07 England Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 0414576 0006-3231 IM Lophotrochozoa Myolaemata Spiralia Trochozoa character evolution colonial integration ground pattern novelties phylogeny soft tissue morphology 2019 02 26 2020 01 10 2020 01 14 2020 2 8 6 0 2020 2 8 6 0 2020 2 8 6 0 ppublish 32032476 10.1111/brv.12583 V. 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href=http://ubio.org/portal/index.php?search=Lophotrochozoa&category=l&client=pubmed&startPage=2><img src=rtal.png border=0></a></td></tr><td align=center></td><td align=center>1</td><td align=center><a href=http://ubio.org/portal/index.php?search=Lophotrochozoa&category=l&client=pubmed&startPage=2>2</a></td><td align=center><a href=http://ubio.org/portal/index.php?search=Lophotrochozoa&category=l&client=pubmed&startPage=3>3</a></td><td align=center><a href=http://ubio.org/portal/index.php?search=Lophotrochozoa&category=l&client=pubmed&startPage=4>4</a></td><td align=center><a href=http://ubio.org/portal/index.php?search=Lophotrochozoa&category=l&client=pubmed&startPage=5>5</a></td><td align=center><a href=http://ubio.org/portal/index.php?search=Lophotrochozoa&category=l&client=pubmed&startPage=6>6</a></td><td align=center><a href=http://ubio.org/portal/index.php?search=Lophotrochozoa&category=l&client=pubmed&startPage=7>7</a></td><td align=center><a 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