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1.  Clavicle in Carnivorans: A Forgotten Bone.LinkIT
de Souza Junior P, Viotto-Souza W, Mendes VP, Bernardes FCS, Dos Anjos BL, Abidu-Figueiredo M, Santos ALQ
Anatomical record (Hoboken, N.J. : 2007) Anat Rec (Hoboken) Clavicle in Carnivorans: A Forgotten Bone. 1831-1841 10.1002/ar.24294 The clavicle is a bone whose development is related to the versatility of the thoracic limbs in mammals. Studies with vestigial structures are scarce and controversial, especially in the order Carnivora. The objective of this study was to verify the presence and to investigate the shape and constitution of the clavicle in neotropical carnivores. In order to do this, 108 cadavers of 19 different species were collected dead on highways and were analyzed. The clavicles were submitted to dissections, longitudinal length measurements, radiographs, histological sections and, in some cases, diaphanization. Sixteen of the 19 species had clavicles in both sides, being significantly larger (P?<?0.05) and distinctly more radiopaque in the felids than in the other families. There were no macro or microscopic evidence of clavicle in the specimens of Nasua nasua (n = 6), Conepatus semistriatus (n = 2), and Conepatus chinga (n = 1). The clavicle of the males of Lycalopex gymnocercus, Galictis cuja, and Leopardus geoffroyi was significantly larger (P?<?0.05). The predominating contour of the clavicles was a thin stick with cranial convexity. The histological sections demonstrated compact bone consisting of trabecula and lamellae filled by bone marrow and different levels of occupation by chondroid matrix. It can be proposed the clavicles of the order Carnivora, although vestigial and rarely absent, have their presence, constitution and shape more associated with the phylogenetic proximity and evolutionary history of the species than to the variety of movements the thoracic limbs perform in free-living conditions. Anat Rec, 2019. © 2019 American Association for Anatomy Anat Rec, 303:1831-1841, 2020. © 2019 American Association for Anatomy. © 2019 American Association for Anatomy. de Souza Junior Paulo P https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6488-6491 Laboratory of Animal Anatomy, Federal University of Pampa (UNIPAMPA), Uruguaiana, RS, Brazil. Viotto-Souza Wilson W Laboratory of Wild Animals Teaching and Research, Federal University of Uberlândia (UFU), Uberlândia, MG, Brazil. Laboratory of Animal Anatomy, Presidente Antonio Carlos University (UNIPAC), Uberlândia, RS, Brazil. Mendes Vanessa Pereira VP Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Federal University of Pampa (UNIPAMPA), Uruguaiana, RS, Brazil. Bernardes Fernanda Coelho Simas FCS Laboratory of Animal Anatomy, Federal University of Pampa (UNIPAMPA), Uruguaiana, RS, Brazil. Dos Anjos Bruno Leite BL Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Federal University of Pampa (UNIPAMPA), Uruguaiana, RS, Brazil. Abidu-Figueiredo Marcelo M Department of Animal Biology, Animal Anatomy Area, Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropédica, RJ, Brazil. Santos André Luiz Quagliatto ALQ Laboratory of Wild Animals Teaching and Research, Federal University of Uberlândia (UFU), Uberlândia, MG, Brazil. eng Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior Fundação Carlos Chagas Filho de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado do Rio de Janeiro Programa de Desenvolvimento Acadêmico da Universidade Federal do Pampa (UNIPAMPA) Journal Article 2019 11 13 United States Anat Rec (Hoboken) 101292775 1932-8486 IM osteology thoracic limb vestigial wild carnivorans 2019 02 12 2019 09 04 2019 09 07 2019 10 22 6 0 2019 10 22 6 0 2019 10 22 6 0 ppublish 31633876 10.1002/ar.24294 LITERATURE CITED, 2020</i></font><br><font color=#008000>http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=0<br></font></span><br>2.  <a href=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=0 class=title>Faecal Virome Analysis of Wild Animals from Brazil.</a><a href=http://ubio.org/tools/linkit.php?map%5B%5D=all&link_type=2&url=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=0><img src=linkit.png border=0 title='LinkIT' alt='LinkIT'></a> <br><span class=j>A Duarte M, F Silva JM, R Brito C, S Teixeira D, L Melo F, M Ribeiro B, Nagata T, S Campos F<br><font color=gray><i>Viruses, 2019</i></font><br><font color=#008000>http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=0<br></font></span><br>3.  <a href=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=0 class=title>The microbiome seeding debate - let's frame it around women-centred care.</a><a href=http://ubio.org/tools/linkit.php?map%5B%5D=all&link_type=2&url=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=0><img src=linkit.png border=0 title='LinkIT' alt='LinkIT'></a> <br><span class=j>Lokugamage AU, Pathberiya SDC<br><font color=gray><i>Reproductive health, 2019</i></font><br><font color=#008000>http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=0<br></font></span><br>4.  <a href=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=0 class=title>Vulnerability to the transmission of human visceral leishmaniasis in a Brazilian urban area.</a><a href=http://ubio.org/tools/linkit.php?map%5B%5D=all&link_type=2&url=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=0><img src=linkit.png border=0 title='LinkIT' alt='LinkIT'></a> <br><span class=j>Toledo CRS, Almeida AS, Chaves SAM, Sabroza PC, Toledo LM, Caldas JP<br><font color=gray><i>Revista de saude publica, 2017</i></font><br><font color=#008000>http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=0<br></font></span><br>5.  <a href=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=0 class=title>Foot length measurements of newborns of high and low risk pregnancies.</a><a href=http://ubio.org/tools/linkit.php?map%5B%5D=all&link_type=2&url=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=0><img src=linkit.png border=0 title='LinkIT' alt='LinkIT'></a> <br><span class=j>Salge AK, Rocha ÉL, Gaíva MA, Castral TC, Guimarães JV, Xavier RM<br><font color=gray><i>Revista da Escola de Enfermagem da U S P, 2017</i></font><br><font color=#008000>http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=0<br></font></span><br>6.  <a href=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=0 class=title>Influence of the ventilatory mode on acute adverse effects and facial thermography after noninvasive ventilation.</a><a href=http://ubio.org/tools/linkit.php?map%5B%5D=all&link_type=2&url=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=0><img src=linkit.png border=0 title='LinkIT' alt='LinkIT'></a> <br><span class=j>Pontes SMM, Melo LHP, Maia NPS, Nogueira ADNC, Vasconcelos TB, Pereira EDB, Bastos VPD, Holanda MA<br><font color=gray><i>Jornal brasileiro de pneumologia : publicacao oficial da Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisilogia, 2017</i></font><br><font color=#008000>http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=0<br></font></span><br>7.  <a href=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=0 class=title>Quality Program: what influences the opinion of nursing team.</a><a href=http://ubio.org/tools/linkit.php?map%5B%5D=all&link_type=2&url=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=0><img src=linkit.png border=0 title='LinkIT' alt='LinkIT'></a> <br><span class=j>Costa FM, Souza ID, Monteiro MI, Lopes MH, Greco RM<br><font color=gray><i>Einstein (Sao Paulo, Brazil), 2017</i></font><br><font color=#008000>http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=0<br></font></span><br>8.  <a href=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=0 class=title>Urban versus rural lifestyle in adolescents: associations between environment, physical activity levels and sedentary behavior.</a><a href=http://ubio.org/tools/linkit.php?map%5B%5D=all&link_type=2&url=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=0><img src=linkit.png border=0 title='LinkIT' alt='LinkIT'></a> <br><span class=j>Regis MF, Oliveira LM, Santos AR, Leonidio AD, Diniz PR, Freitas CM<br><font color=gray><i>Einstein (Sao Paulo, Brazil), 2017</i></font><br><font color=#008000>http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=0<br></font></span><br>9.  <a href=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=0 class=title>Helminth parasites of Galictis cuja (Carnivora, Mustelidae), from localities in the Atlantic forest of Brazil.</a><a href=http://ubio.org/tools/linkit.php?map%5B%5D=all&link_type=2&url=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=0><img src=linkit.png border=0 title='LinkIT' alt='LinkIT'></a> <br><span class=j>Corrêa P, Bueno C, Vieira FM, Muniz-Pereira LC<br><font color=gray><i>Revista brasileira de parasitologia veterinaria = Brazilian journal of veterinary parasitology : Orgao Oficial do Colegio Brasileiro de Parasitologia Veterinaria, 2018</i></font><br><font color=#008000>http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=0<br></font></span><br>10.  <a href=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=0 class=title>Incidence and factors related to delirium in an intensive care unit.</a><a href=http://ubio.org/tools/linkit.php?map%5B%5D=all&link_type=2&url=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=0><img src=linkit.png border=0 title='LinkIT' alt='LinkIT'></a> <br><span class=j>Mori S, Takeda JR, Carrara FS, Cohrs CR, Zanei SS, Whitaker IY<br><font color=gray><i>Revista da Escola de Enfermagem da U S P, 2017</i></font><br><font color=#008000>http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=0<br></font></span><br><br><br><table cellspacing=0 cellpadding=0 align=center><tr valign=bottom><td align=center><img src=p.png border=0></td><td align=center><img 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