Actinopterygii (spiny rayed fishes)
Appendicularia (pelagic tunicates)
Ascidiacea (sessile tunicates)
Cephalochordata (amphioxus (common))
Chondrichthyes (cartilaginous fishes)
Sarcopterygii (lobe-finned fish)
Thaliacea (pelagic tunicates)
Did you mean: Chordates ?
Common Names: Rêchstringdier, Cordog, Chordates, Selkäjänteiset, Cordados, cordés, Chordés, Cordat, Ĥordulo, Keelikloomad, Chordate, Χορδωτά, 척색동물, cordado, Chordatiere, Hordati, Svitkovci, מיתרניים, Chordatos, Cordati, Chordater, Strunatci, Хордови, 脊索動物, Gerinchúrosok ....
1. Toxicity evaluation and microbiota response of the lined sole Achirus lineatus (Chordata: Achiridae) exposed to the light petroleum water-accommodated fraction (WAF).
Améndola-Pimenta M, Cerqueda-García D, Zamora-Briseño JA, Couoh-Puga D, Montero-Muñoz J, Árcega-Cabrera F, Ceja-Moreno V, Pérez-Vega JA, García-Maldonado JQ, Del Río-García M, Zapata-Pérez O, Rodríguez-Canul R
Journal of toxicology and environmental health. Part A, 2020
2. The sensory peripheral nervous system in the tail of a cephalochordate studied by serial blockface scanning electron microscopy.
Holland ND, Somorjai IML
The Journal of comparative neurology J. Comp. Neurol. The sensory peripheral nervous system in the tail of a cephalochordate studied by serial blockface scanning electron microscopy. 10.1002/cne.24913 Serial blockface scanning electron microscopy (SBSEM) is used to describe the sensory peripheral nervous system (PNS) in the tail of a cephalochordate, Asymmetron lucayanum. The reconstructed region extends from the tail tip to the origin of the most posterior peripheral nerves from the dorsal nerve cord. As peripheral nerves ramify within the dermis, all the nuclei along their course belong to glial cells. Invaginations in the glial cell cytoplasm house the neurites, an association reminiscent of the nonmyelinated Schwann cells of vertebrates. Peripheral nerves pass from the dermis to the epidermis via small fenestrae in the sub-epidermal collagen fibril layer; most nerves exit abruptly, but a few run obliquely within the collagen fibril layer for many micrometers before exiting. Within the epidermis, each nerve begins ramifying repeatedly, but the branches are too small to be followed to their tips with SBSEM at low magnification (previous studies on other cephalochordates indicate that the branches end freely or in association with epidermal sensory cells). In Asymmetron, two morphological kinds of sensory cells are scattered in the epidermis, usually singly, but sometimes in pairs, evidently the recent progeny of a single precursor cell. The discussion considers the evolution of the sensory PNS in the phylum Chordata. In cephalochordates, Retzius bipolar neurons with intramedullary perikarya likely correspond to the Rohon-Beard cells of vertebrates. However, extramedullary neurons originating from ventral epidermis in cephalochordates (and presumably in ancestral chordates) contrast with vertebrate sensory neurons, which arise from placodes and neural crest. © 2020 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Holland Nicholas D ND https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3448-490X Marine Biology Research Division, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, California, USA. Somorjai Ildiko M L IML School of Biology, University of Saint Andrews, St Andrews, UK. eng Journal Article 2020 04 04 United States J Comp Neurol 0406041 0021-9967 IM Cephalochordata SBSEM amphioxus glia lancelet peripheral nervous system 2020 03 10 2020 03 12 2020 4 5 6 0 2020 4 5 6 0 2020 4 5 6 0 aheadofprint 32246832 10.1002/cne.24913 REFERENCES, 2020
3. Phylogenetics identifies two eumetazoan TRPM clades and an 8th TRP family, TRP soromelastatin (TRPS).
Himmel NJ, Gray TR, Cox DN
Molecular biology and evolution, 2020
4. The Effects of Temperature on Animal Gut Microbiomes.
Sepulveda J, Moeller AH
Frontiers in microbiology, 2020
5. Contemporary climate change hinders hybrid performance of ecologically dominant marine invertebrates.
Hudson J, McQuaid CD, Rius M
Journal of evolutionary biology J. Evol. Biol. Contemporary climate change hinders hybrid performance of ecologically dominant marine invertebrates. 10.1111/jeb.13609 Human activities alter patterns of biodiversity, particularly through species extinctions and range shifts. Two of these activities are human mediated transfer of species and contemporary climate change, and both allow previously isolated genotypes to come into contact and hybridize, potentially altering speciation rates. Hybrids have been shown to survive environmental conditions not tolerated by either parent, suggesting that, under some circumstances, hybrids may be able to expand their ranges and perform well under rapidly changing conditions. However, studies assessing how hybridization influences contemporary range shifts are scarce. We performed crosses on Pyura herdmani and Pyura stolonifera (Chordata, Tunicata), two closely related marine invertebrate species that are ecologically dominant and can hybridize. These sister species live in sympatry along the coasts of southern Africa, but one has a disjunct distribution that includes northern hemisphere sites. We experimentally assessed the performance of hybrid and parental crosses using different temperature regimes, including temperatures predicted under future climate change scenarios. We found that hybrids showed lower performance than parental crosses at the experimental temperatures, suggesting that hybrids are unlikely to expand their ranges to new environments. In turn, we found that the more widespread species performed better at a wide array of temperatures, indicating that this parental species may cope better with future conditions. This study illustrates how offspring fitness may provide key insights to predict range expansions and how contemporary climate change may mediate both the ability of hybrids to expand their ranges and the occurrence of speciation as a result of hybridization. © 2020 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2020 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Hudson Jamie J https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2294-1616 School of Ocean and Earth Science, National Oceanography Centre Southampton, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK. McQuaid Christopher D CD https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3473-8308 Department of Zoology and Entomology, Rhodes University, Grahamstown, South Africa. Rius Marc M https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2195-6605 School of Ocean and Earth Science, National Oceanography Centre Southampton, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK. Department of Zoology, Centre for Ecological Genomics and Wildlife Conservation, University of Johannesburg, Auckland Park, South Africa. eng 64801 National Research Foundation Journal Article 2020 02 25 Switzerland J Evol Biol 8809954 1010-061X IM Pyura stolonifera species complex early life history stages intertidal ecology post-metamorph pre-metamorph recruitment settlement thermal sensitivity 2019 09 26 2020 02 03 2020 02 15 2020 2 26 6 0 2020 2 26 6 0 2020 2 26 6 0 aheadofprint 32096898 10.1111/jeb.13609 REFERENCES, 2020
6. Songs versus colours versus horns: what explains the diversity of sexually selected traits?
Wiens JJ, Tuschhoff E
Biological reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc Songs versus colours versus horns: what explains the diversity of sexually selected traits? 10.1111/brv.12593 Papers on sexual selection often highlight the incredible diversity of sexually selected traits across animals. Yet, few studies have tried to explain why this diversity evolved. Animals use many different types of traits to attract mates and outcompete rivals, including colours, songs, and horns, but it remains unclear why, for example, some taxa have songs, others have colours, and others horns. Here, we first conduct a systematic survey of the basic diversity and distribution of different types of sexually selected signals and weapons across the animal Tree of Life. Based on this survey, we describe seven major patterns in trait diversity and distributions. We then discuss 10 unanswered questions raised by these patterns, and how they might be addressed. One major pattern is that most types of sexually selected signals and weapons are apparently absent from most animal phyla (88%), in contrast to the conventional wisdom that a diversity of sexually selected traits is present across animals. Furthermore, most trait diversity is clustered in Arthropoda and Chordata, but only within certain clades. Within these clades, many different types of traits have evolved, and many types appear to have evolved repeatedly. By contrast, other major arthropod and chordate clades appear to lack all or most trait types, and similar patterns are repeated at smaller phylogenetic scales (e.g. within insects). Although most research on sexual selection focuses on female choice, we find similar numbers of traits (among sampled species) are involved in male contests (44%) and female choice (55%). Overall, these patterns are largely unexplained and unexplored, as are many other fundamental questions about the evolution of these traits. We suggest that understanding the diversity of sexually selected traits may require a shift towards macroevolutionary studies at relatively deep timescales (e.g. tens to hundreds of millions of years ago). © 2020 Cambridge Philosophical Society. Wiens John J JJ https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4243-1127 Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, 85721-0088, U.S.A. Tuschhoff E E Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, 85721-0088, U.S.A. eng DEB 1655690 U.S. National Science Foundation Journal Article 2020 02 24 England Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 0414576 0006-3231 IM contest competition macroevolution mate choice ornaments phylogeny sexual selection weapons 2019 07 14 2020 01 25 2020 02 10 2020 2 25 6 0 2020 2 25 6 0 2020 2 25 6 0 aheadofprint 32092241 10.1111/brv.12593 REFERENCES, 2020
7. Neurons and Glia Cells in Marine Invertebrates: An Update.
Ortega A, Olivares-Bañuelos TN
Frontiers in neuroscience, 2020
8. In Silico Study of Rett Syndrome Treatment-Related Genes, MECP2, CDKL5, and FOXG1, by Evolutionary Classification and Disordered Region Assessment.
Fahmi M, Yasui G, Seki K, Katayama S, Kaneko-Kawano T, Inazu T, Kubota Y, Ito M
International journal of molecular sciences, 2019
9. The Ascidiacea collected during the 2017 British Columbia Hakai MarineGEO BioBlitz.
10. A new species of Paratelmatobius (Anura: Leptodactylidae: Paratelmatobiinae) from the Atlantic Forest of southern Brazil.
Santos MTT, DE Oliveira SH, DE Carvalho TR, Zaidan BF, DA Silva NR, Berneck BVM, Garcia PCA