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 uBio  Web Results 1 - 10 of about 170866

Scientific:
   Consolida ajacis (Annual Delphinium) 

Synonyms:
   Coronilla scorpioides (Annual Scorpion-vetch (En)) 
   Cynolebias constanciae (Annual Tropical Killifish) 
   Cynolebias opalescens 
   Cynolebias splendens (Annual Tropical Killifish) 
   Cynopoecilus marmoratus 
   Lathyrus annuus (annual vetchling) 
   Leptolebias marmoratus (Marbled pearlfish) 
   Leptolebias minimus (Least pearlfish) 
   Leptolebias opalescens (Opalescent pearlfish) 
   Leptolebias splendens (Annual Tropical Killifish) 
   Melilotus indicus (Melilot des Indes (Fr)) 
   Simpsonichthys constanciae (Featherfin pearlfish) 
   Tripodion tetraphyllum (Annual Kidney Vetch) 

Broader Terms:
   Annual 
   Cynolebias (pearlfishes) 
   Cynopoecilus 
   Cyprinodontiformes (cyprinodonts) 
   Leptolebias 
   Simpsonichthys 
 
 


Melilotus indicus
USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database



1.  The Hidden Costs of War: Healthcare Utilization Among Individuals Sustaining Combat-related Trauma (2007-2018).LinkIT
Dalton MK, Jarman MP, Manful A, Koehlmoos TP, Cooper Z, Weissman JS, Schoenfeld AJ
Annals of surgery, 2021
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=0

2.  Measuring Absolute Membrane Potential Across Space and Time.LinkIT
Lazzari-Dean JR, Gest AMM, Miller EW
Annual review of biophysics, 2021
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=0

3.  Tissue Homeostasis and Inflammation.LinkIT
Meizlish ML, Franklin RA, Zhou X, Medzhitov R
Annual review of immunology, 2021
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=0

4.  Gamma Knife Radiosurgery for Incidental, Symptomatic Unruptured, and Ruptured Brain Arteriovenous Malformations.LinkIT
Kim BS, Yeon JY, Shin HS, Kim JS, Hong SC, Shin HJ, Hwang YS, Lee JI
Cerebrovascular diseases (Basel, Switzerland), 2021
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=0

5.  COVID-19 Vaccines: Global Challenges and Prospects Forum Recommendations.LinkIT
Boudjelal M, Almajed F, Salman AM, Alharbi NK, Colangelo M, Michelotti JM, Olinger G, Baker M, Hill AVS, Alaskar A
International journal of infectious diseases : IJID : official publication of the International Society for Infectious Diseases, 2021
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=0

6.  Estimating water erosion from the brightness index of orbital images: A framework for the prognosis of degraded pastures.LinkIT
Vieira AS, do Valle Junior RF, Rodrigues VS, da Silva Quinaia TL, Mendes RG, Valera CA, Fernandes LFS, Pacheco FAL
The Science of the total environment, 2021
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=0

7.  Temporal variability in the impacts of particulate matter on crop yields on the North China Plain. 145135 S0048-9697(21)00201-1 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.145135 The North China Plain (NCP) is a major agricultural region, producing 45% of China's maize. It is also vital to the Chinese economy, encompassing the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei megacity region. Anthropogenic factors increasingly impact crop yields on the NCP, and globally. Particulate matter (PM) pollution is a significant problem in this region, where annual average PM concentrations over three times the Chinese national air quality standard were recorded for the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei megacity region between 2013 and 18. PM absorbs light, reducing total shortwave radiation (SW), thereby limiting plant productivity. However, PM also scatters incoming SW, increasing the diffuse fraction, which has been shown to increase growth and biomass assimilation. The Joint UK Land Environment Simulator (JULES) crop model was used to assess the net impact of these competing changes in light on NCP maize yields. In contrast to some previous analyses, we find that PM-associated decreases in SW outweigh any positive impact on yield from an increasing proportion of diffuse radiation. Furthermore, carbon allocation to different portions of the growing cropchanges during the development cycle. We find significant differences between the effect on final yield of identical changes to diffuse fraction and total SW occurring during different development stages. The greatest simulated yield gains from increased SW and reduced diffuse fraction, consistent with reductions in PM, are observed during the early reproductive stage of development (July-August), when the simulated gain of yield is as much as 12.9% more than in other periods. To further assess the impact of PM-linked changes in SW and diffuse fraction on NCP crop yields, radiation profiles from different city regions were then applied across the NCP. The changes in SW associated with these city regions could increase maize yields across China by ~8 Mt. This would completely offset China's annual maize imports, increasing both national and global food security. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Wolffe Michael C MC Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4YW, United Kingdom. Electronic address: m.wolffe@lancaster.ac.uk. Wild Oliver O Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4YW, United Kingdom. Long Stephen P SP Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4YW, United Kingdom; Crop Sciences and Plant Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1206 W Gregory Dr, Urbana, IL 61801, United States. Ashworth Kirsti K Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4YW, United Kingdom. eng Journal Article 2021 02 16 Netherlands Sci Total Environ 0330500 0048-9697 IM Aerosol radiation interactions Air pollution Crop modelling Diffuse light PM Declaration of competing interest The authors declare that they have no known competing financial interests or personal relationships that could have appeared to influence the work reported in this paper. 2020 07 28 2020 12 22 2021 01 09 2021 3 2 20 12 2021 3 3 6 0 2021 3 3 6 0 aheadofprint 33652318 S0048-9697(21)00201-1 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.145135 33651551 NBK567993 National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (US) Bethesda (MD) Diabetes in America 2018 08 Cowie Catherine C. CC Senior Advisor and Director for Diabetes Epidemiology, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD Casagrande Sarah Stark SS Senior Research Analyst, Social & Scientific Systems, Inc., Silver Spring, MD Menke Andy A Senior Research Analyst, Social & Scientific Systems, Inc., Silver Spring, MD Cissell Michelle A. MA Science Writer/Editor, Chicago, IL Eberhardt Mark S. MS Epidemiologist, Division of Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Hyattsville, MD Meigs James B. JB Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, and Physician, Division of General Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA Gregg Edward W. EW Chief, Epidemiology and Statistics Branch, Division of Diabetes Translation, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA Knowler William C. WC Chief, Diabetes Epidemiology and Clinical Research Section, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Phoenix, AZ Barrett-Connor Elizabeth E Distinguished Professor, Division of Epidemiology, Department of Family Medicine and Public Health, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA Becker Dorothy J. DJ Professor of Pediatrics, Division of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Children?s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Pittsburgh, PA Brancati Frederick L. FL Distinguished Service Professor of Medicine and Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD Boyko Edward J. EJ Professor, University of Washington, and Staff Physician, Veterans Affairs Puget Sound, Seattle, WA Herman William H. WH Professor, Departments of Internal Medicine and Epidemiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI Howard Barbara V. BV Professor of Medicine, Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Georgetown University Hospital, and Senior Scientist, MedStar Health Research Institute, Hyattsville, MD Narayan K. M. Venkat KMV Director, Emory Global Diabetes Research Center, Ruth and O.C. Hubert Professor of Global Health and Epidemiology, Rollins School of Public Health, and Professor of Medicine, School of Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, GA Rewers Marian M Professor of Pediatrics and Medicine, Barbara Davis Center for Childhood Diabetes, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO Fradkin Judith E. JE Director, Division of Diabetes, Endocrinology, and Metabolic Diseases, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 3rd CHAPTER 17 Acute Metabolic Complications in Diabetes eng Rewers Arleta A Dr. Arleta Rewers is Associate Professor, Department of Pediatrics at University of Colorado Denver School of Medicine, Aurora, CO Review Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state (HHS), lactic acidosis (LA), and hypoglycemia are acute and potentially life-threatening complications of diabetes. DKA and severe hypoglycemia are more common in type 1 diabetes, while HHS without ketoacidosis is associated more frequently with type 2 diabetes. In the United States, the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth study reported that 29% of patients age <20 years with type 1 diabetes and 10% with type 2 diabetes presented in DKA at diagnosis. The frequency of DKA among adult patients at diagnosis is unknown. A small group of high-risk patients accounts for most recurring DKA in longstanding type 1 diabetes, but the incidence remains high?approximately 1?12 episodes per 100 patient-years. Deaths in the United States with DKA listed as the underlying cause during 2000?2009 decreased 35%, from an annual rate of 12.9 per 100,000 people with diabetes in 2000 and 2001 to 8.4 per 100,000 people with diabetes in 2009. Estimated rates of hospital admissions for HHS are lower compared to DKA. HHS accounted for <1% of all admissions related to diabetes. HHS remains uncommon, but recognition of the state has increased, partially because of high case fatality, exceeding 20% in some patient groups. In 2001?2010, LA accounted for 1.2% of all hospitalizations in diabetic patients. Also in 2001?2010, hypoglycemia was listed as an underlying cause in nearly 288,000 hospitalizations, which represented 5.4% of total hospitalizations due to diabetes. Severe hypoglycemia, i.e., coma or seizure secondary to diabetes treatment, remains high (up to five episodes per 10 patient-years) and has increased among patients who aim for lower glycosylated hemoglobin (A1c) targets without appropriate initial education and ongoing support. All four acute complications are theoretically preventable; unfortunately, they still account for enormous morbidity, hospitalizations, and mortality among diabetic patients and contribute significantly to the high costs of diabetes care.
Summary
Diabetic Ketoacidosis
Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar State
Lactic Acidosis
Hypoglycemia
List of Abbreviations
References
2021 3 3 6 1 2021 3 3 6 1 2021 3 3 6 1 ppublish 33651551
33651541 NBK567979 National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (US) Bethesda (MD) Diabetes in America 2018 08 Cowie Catherine C. CC Senior Advisor and Director for Diabetes Epidemiology, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD Casagrande Sarah Stark SS Senior Research Analyst, Social & Scientific Systems, Inc., Silver Spring, MD Menke Andy A Senior Research Analyst, Social & Scientific Systems, Inc., Silver Spring, MD Cissell Michelle A. MA Science Writer/Editor, Chicago, IL Eberhardt Mark S. MS Epidemiologist, Division of Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Hyattsville, MD Meigs James B. JB Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, and Physician, Division of General Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA Gregg Edward W. EW Chief, Epidemiology and Statistics Branch, Division of Diabetes Translation, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA Knowler William C. WC Chief, Diabetes Epidemiology and Clinical Research Section, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Phoenix, AZ Barrett-Connor Elizabeth E Distinguished Professor, Division of Epidemiology, Department of Family Medicine and Public Health, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA Becker Dorothy J. DJ Professor of Pediatrics, Division of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Children?s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Pittsburgh, PA Brancati Frederick L. FL Distinguished Service Professor of Medicine and Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD Boyko Edward J. EJ Professor, University of Washington, and Staff Physician, Veterans Affairs Puget Sound, Seattle, WA Herman William H. WH Professor, Departments of Internal Medicine and Epidemiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI Howard Barbara V. BV Professor of Medicine, Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Georgetown University Hospital, and Senior Scientist, MedStar Health Research Institute, Hyattsville, MD Narayan K. M. Venkat KMV Director, Emory Global Diabetes Research Center, Ruth and O.C. Hubert Professor of Global Health and Epidemiology, Rollins School of Public Health, and Professor of Medicine, School of Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, GA Rewers Marian M Professor of Pediatrics and Medicine, Barbara Davis Center for Childhood Diabetes, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO Fradkin Judith E. JE Director, Division of Diabetes, Endocrinology, and Metabolic Diseases, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 3rd CHAPTER 40 Health Care Utilization and Costs of Diabetes eng McEwen Laura N. LN Dr. Laura N. McEwen is Epidemiologist in the Division of Metabolism, Endocrinology and Diabetes at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI Herman William H. WH Dr. William H. Herman is Professor in the Departments of Internal Medicine and Epidemiology at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI Review People with diabetes visit physician offices and emergency rooms more frequently than people without diabetes and are more likely to be admitted to the hospital and nursing homes and to receive home health care. In 2010, 29.9 million office-based physician visits had a primary diagnosis of diabetes, and 51.1 million office-based physician visits had diabetes as any listed diagnosis. In 2011, almost half of all people with diabetes in the United States had six or more office-based physician visits. Only 4% of people with diabetes did not have any office-based physician visits compared to 13% of people in the general U.S. population. People with diabetes were also more likely to visit the emergency room, with 30% having at least one visit compared to 20% of the general population. Fifty-three percent of people with diabetes had a dental visit in the past year, but 21% had not visited a dentist in more than 5 years. Ten percent of people with diabetes had phone contact with their physician?s office in the past 2 weeks, 5% used email to communicate with their physician, and 34% looked up health information on the internet. In 2010, 6.76 million hospitalizations listed diabetes as one of the discharge diagnoses; these accounted for 34.67 million hospital days. Diabetes was the primary discharge diagnosis for 622,000 hospitalizations. People with diabetes were 2.6 times more likely to be hospitalized in the past year than people without diabetes (21% vs. 8%). Having complications of diabetes was associated with hospitalization. Comorbid diabetic ketoacidosis, cardiovascular disease, and cardiac procedures were frequently present. Multiple hospitalizations were also common. In 2011, almost 30% of people with diabetes who were hospitalized had two or more hospitalizations. In 2004, 358,500 nursing home residents age ?55 years had diagnosed diabetes. They accounted for approximately 25% of the nursing home population. Residents with diabetes are more likely to be younger and nonwhite than residents without diabetes. More than 85% have comorbid cardiovascular disease, 63% have mental disorders, and 90% have two or more chronic conditions in addition to diabetes. Home health care agencies are an increasingly important source of long-term care, and 33% of people receiving home health care in 2007 had diabetes. The prevalence of diabetes is highest for home health care patients age 65?74 years. Home health care patients with diabetes are more likely to be middle-aged and nonwhite than patients without diabetes. More than 75% have comorbid cardiovascular disease, and 14% are receiving post-hospital aftercare. Seventy-two percent of home health care recipients have two or more chronic conditions in addition to diabetes, and limitations in activities of daily living are common. Because people with diabetes visit physician offices, hospital outpatient departments, and emergency rooms more frequently than people without diabetes and are more likely to be admitted to the hospital and nursing homes and to receive home health care, their medical costs are higher than for people without diabetes. Economic analyses performed by the American Diabetes Association in 2012 suggest that the excess economic costs attributable to diabetes in the United States were $245 billion, including $176 billion related to medical care for diabetes, its complications, and comorbidities and $69 billion related to time lost from work and usual activities due to illness, disability, and premature mortality. The costs of diabetes increased by approximately 200% from 2002 to 2012. While health care costs for inpatient and outpatient care attributable to diabetes have increased steadily over time, costs related to outpatient medications and supplies increased dramatically from 2007 to 2012. Americans with diabetes have direct medical costs 2.3 times higher than those without diabetes at an annual per capita excess cost of $7,888 attributable to their diabetes.
Summary
Ambulatory Medical Care for People With Diabetes
Diabetes-Related Hospitalizations and Hospital Utilization
Diabetes and Long-Term Care
Economic Impact of Diabetes
List of Abbreviations
References
Appendices
2021 3 3 6 1 2021 3 3 6 1 2021 3 3 6 1 ppublish 33651541
33651530 NBK567965 National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (US) Bethesda (MD) Diabetes in America 2018 08 Cowie Catherine C. CC Senior Advisor and Director for Diabetes Epidemiology, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD Casagrande Sarah Stark SS Senior Research Analyst, Social & Scientific Systems, Inc., Silver Spring, MD Menke Andy A Senior Research Analyst, Social & Scientific Systems, Inc., Silver Spring, MD Cissell Michelle A. MA Science Writer/Editor, Chicago, IL Eberhardt Mark S. MS Epidemiologist, Division of Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Hyattsville, MD Meigs James B. JB Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, and Physician, Division of General Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA Gregg Edward W. EW Chief, Epidemiology and Statistics Branch, Division of Diabetes Translation, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA Knowler William C. WC Chief, Diabetes Epidemiology and Clinical Research Section, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Phoenix, AZ Barrett-Connor Elizabeth E Distinguished Professor, Division of Epidemiology, Department of Family Medicine and Public Health, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA Becker Dorothy J. DJ Professor of Pediatrics, Division of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Children?s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Pittsburgh, PA Brancati Frederick L. FL Distinguished Service Professor of Medicine and Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD Boyko Edward J. EJ Professor, University of Washington, and Staff Physician, Veterans Affairs Puget Sound, Seattle, WA Herman William H. WH Professor, Departments of Internal Medicine and Epidemiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI Howard Barbara V. BV Professor of Medicine, Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Georgetown University Hospital, and Senior Scientist, MedStar Health Research Institute, Hyattsville, MD Narayan K. M. Venkat KMV Director, Emory Global Diabetes Research Center, Ruth and O.C. Hubert Professor of Global Health and Epidemiology, Rollins School of Public Health, and Professor of Medicine, School of Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, GA Rewers Marian M Professor of Pediatrics and Medicine, Barbara Davis Center for Childhood Diabetes, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO Fradkin Judith E. JE Director, Division of Diabetes, Endocrinology, and Metabolic Diseases, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 3rd CHAPTER 11 Risk Factors for Type 1 Diabetes
LinkIT
Wolffe MC, Wild O, Long SP, Ashworth K, , Cowie CC, Casagrande SS, Menke A, Cissell MA, Eberhardt MS, Meigs JB, Gregg EW, Knowler WC, Barrett-Connor E, Becker DJ, Brancati FL, Boyko EJ, Herman WH, Howard BV, Narayan KMV, Rewers M, Fradkin JE, , Rewers A, , Cowie CC, Casagrande SS, Menke A, Cissell MA, Eberhardt MS, Meigs JB, Gregg EW, Knowler WC, Barrett-Connor E, Becker DJ, Brancati FL, Boyko EJ, Herman WH, Howard BV, Narayan KMV, Rewers M, Fradkin JE, , McEwen LN, Herman WH, , Cowie CC, Casagrande SS, Menke A, Cissell MA, Eberhardt MS, Meigs JB, Gregg EW, Knowler WC, Barrett-Connor E, Becker DJ, Brancati FL, Boyko EJ, Herman WH, Howard BV, Narayan KMV, Rewers M, Fradkin JE, , Rewers M, Stene LC, Norris JM
The Science of the total environment, 2021 Feb 16 The Science of the total environment Sci Total Environ Temporal variability in the impacts of particulate matter on crop yields on the North China Plain. 145135 S0048-9697(21)00201-1 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.145135 The North China Plain (NCP) is a major agricultural region, producing 45% of China's maize. It is also vital to the Chinese economy, encompassing the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei megacity region. Anthropogenic factors increasingly impact crop yields on the NCP, and globally. Particulate matter (PM) pollution is a significant problem in this region, where annual average PM concentrations over three times the Chinese national air quality standard were recorded for the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei megacity region between 2013 and 18. PM absorbs light, reducing total shortwave radiation (SW), thereby limiting plant productivity. However, PM also scatters incoming SW, increasing the diffuse fraction, which has been shown to increase growth and biomass assimilation. The Joint UK Land Environment Simulator (JULES) crop model was used to assess the net impact of these competing changes in light on NCP maize yields. In contrast to some previous analyses, we find that PM-associated decreases in SW outweigh any positive impact on yield from an increasing proportion of diffuse radiation. Furthermore, carbon allocation to different portions of the growing cropchanges during the development cycle. We find significant differences between the effect on final yield of identical changes to diffuse fraction and total SW occurring during different development stages. The greatest simulated yield gains from increased SW and reduced diffuse fraction, consistent with reductions in PM, are observed during the early reproductive stage of development (July-August), when the simulated gain of yield is as much as 12.9% more than in other periods. To further assess the impact of PM-linked changes in SW and diffuse fraction on NCP crop yields, radiation profiles from different city regions were then applied across the NCP. The changes in SW associated with these city regions could increase maize yields across China by ~8 Mt. This would completely offset China's annual maize imports, increasing both national and global food security. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Wolffe Michael C MC Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4YW, United Kingdom. Electronic address: m.wolffe@lancaster.ac.uk. Wild Oliver O Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4YW, United Kingdom. Long Stephen P SP Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4YW, United Kingdom; Crop Sciences and Plant Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1206 W Gregory Dr, Urbana, IL 61801, United States. Ashworth Kirsti K Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4YW, United Kingdom. eng Journal Article 2021 02 16 Netherlands Sci Total Environ 0330500 0048-9697 IM Aerosol radiation interactions Air pollution Crop modelling Diffuse light PM Declaration of competing interest The authors declare that they have no known competing financial interests or personal relationships that could have appeared to influence the work reported in this paper. 2020 07 28 2020 12 22 2021 01 09 2021 3 2 20 12 2021 3 3 6 0 2021 3 3 6 0 aheadofprint 33652318 S0048-9697(21)00201-1 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.145135 33651551 NBK567993 National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (US) Bethesda (MD) Diabetes in America 2018 08 Cowie Catherine C. CC Senior Advisor and Director for Diabetes Epidemiology, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD Casagrande Sarah Stark SS Senior Research Analyst, Social & Scientific Systems, Inc., Silver Spring, MD Menke Andy A Senior Research Analyst, Social & Scientific Systems, Inc., Silver Spring, MD Cissell Michelle A. MA Science Writer/Editor, Chicago, IL Eberhardt Mark S. MS Epidemiologist, Division of Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Hyattsville, MD Meigs James B. JB Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, and Physician, Division of General Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA Gregg Edward W. EW Chief, Epidemiology and Statistics Branch, Division of Diabetes Translation, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA Knowler William C. WC Chief, Diabetes Epidemiology and Clinical Research Section, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Phoenix, AZ Barrett-Connor Elizabeth E Distinguished Professor, Division of Epidemiology, Department of Family Medicine and Public Health, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA Becker Dorothy J. DJ Professor of Pediatrics, Division of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Children?s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Pittsburgh, PA Brancati Frederick L. FL Distinguished Service Professor of Medicine and Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD Boyko Edward J. EJ Professor, University of Washington, and Staff Physician, Veterans Affairs Puget Sound, Seattle, WA Herman William H. WH Professor, Departments of Internal Medicine and Epidemiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI Howard Barbara V. BV Professor of Medicine, Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Georgetown University Hospital, and Senior Scientist, MedStar Health Research Institute, Hyattsville, MD Narayan K. M. Venkat KMV Director, Emory Global Diabetes Research Center, Ruth and O.C. Hubert Professor of Global Health and Epidemiology, Rollins School of Public Health, and Professor of Medicine, School of Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, GA Rewers Marian M Professor of Pediatrics and Medicine, Barbara Davis Center for Childhood Diabetes, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO Fradkin Judith E. JE Director, Division of Diabetes, Endocrinology, and Metabolic Diseases, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 3rd CHAPTER 17 Acute Metabolic Complications in Diabetes eng Rewers Arleta A Dr. Arleta Rewers is Associate Professor, Department of Pediatrics at University of Colorado Denver School of Medicine, Aurora, CO Review Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state (HHS), lactic acidosis (LA), and hypoglycemia are acute and potentially life-threatening complications of diabetes. DKA and severe hypoglycemia are more common in type 1 diabetes, while HHS without ketoacidosis is associated more frequently with type 2 diabetes. In the United States, the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth study reported that 29% of patients age <20 years with type 1 diabetes and 10% with type 2 diabetes presented in DKA at diagnosis. The frequency of DKA among adult patients at diagnosis is unknown. A small group of high-risk patients accounts for most recurring DKA in longstanding type 1 diabetes, but the incidence remains high?approximately 1?12 episodes per 100 patient-years. Deaths in the United States with DKA listed as the underlying cause during 2000?2009 decreased 35%, from an annual rate of 12.9 per 100,000 people with diabetes in 2000 and 2001 to 8.4 per 100,000 people with diabetes in 2009. Estimated rates of hospital admissions for HHS are lower compared to DKA. HHS accounted for <1% of all admissions related to diabetes. HHS remains uncommon, but recognition of the state has increased, partially because of high case fatality, exceeding 20% in some patient groups. In 2001?2010, LA accounted for 1.2% of all hospitalizations in diabetic patients. Also in 2001?2010, hypoglycemia was listed as an underlying cause in nearly 288,000 hospitalizations, which represented 5.4% of total hospitalizations due to diabetes. Severe hypoglycemia, i.e., coma or seizure secondary to diabetes treatment, remains high (up to five episodes per 10 patient-years) and has increased among patients who aim for lower glycosylated hemoglobin (A1c) targets without appropriate initial education and ongoing support. All four acute complications are theoretically preventable; unfortunately, they still account for enormous morbidity, hospitalizations, and mortality among diabetic patients and contribute significantly to the high costs of diabetes care.
Summary
Diabetic Ketoacidosis
Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar State
Lactic Acidosis
Hypoglycemia
List of Abbreviations
References
2021 3 3 6 1 2021 3 3 6 1 2021 3 3 6 1 ppublish 33651551
33651541 NBK567979 National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (US) Bethesda (MD) Diabetes in America 2018 08 Cowie Catherine C. CC Senior Advisor and Director for Diabetes Epidemiology, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD Casagrande Sarah Stark SS Senior Research Analyst, Social & Scientific Systems, Inc., Silver Spring, MD Menke Andy A Senior Research Analyst, Social & Scientific Systems, Inc., Silver Spring, MD Cissell Michelle A. MA Science Writer/Editor, Chicago, IL Eberhardt Mark S. MS Epidemiologist, Division of Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Hyattsville, MD Meigs James B. JB Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, and Physician, Division of General Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA Gregg Edward W. EW Chief, Epidemiology and Statistics Branch, Division of Diabetes Translation, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA Knowler William C. WC Chief, Diabetes Epidemiology and Clinical Research Section, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Phoenix, AZ Barrett-Connor Elizabeth E Distinguished Professor, Division of Epidemiology, Department of Family Medicine and Public Health, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA Becker Dorothy J. DJ Professor of Pediatrics, Division of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Children?s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Pittsburgh, PA Brancati Frederick L. FL Distinguished Service Professor of Medicine and Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD Boyko Edward J. EJ Professor, University of Washington, and Staff Physician, Veterans Affairs Puget Sound, Seattle, WA Herman William H. WH Professor, Departments of Internal Medicine and Epidemiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI Howard Barbara V. BV Professor of Medicine, Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Georgetown University Hospital, and Senior Scientist, MedStar Health Research Institute, Hyattsville, MD Narayan K. M. Venkat KMV Director, Emory Global Diabetes Research Center, Ruth and O.C. Hubert Professor of Global Health and Epidemiology, Rollins School of Public Health, and Professor of Medicine, School of Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, GA Rewers Marian M Professor of Pediatrics and Medicine, Barbara Davis Center for Childhood Diabetes, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO Fradkin Judith E. JE Director, Division of Diabetes, Endocrinology, and Metabolic Diseases, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 3rd CHAPTER 40 Health Care Utilization and Costs of Diabetes eng McEwen Laura N. LN Dr. Laura N. McEwen is Epidemiologist in the Division of Metabolism, Endocrinology and Diabetes at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI Herman William H. WH Dr. William H. Herman is Professor in the Departments of Internal Medicine and Epidemiology at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI Review People with diabetes visit physician offices and emergency rooms more frequently than people without diabetes and are more likely to be admitted to the hospital and nursing homes and to receive home health care. In 2010, 29.9 million office-based physician visits had a primary diagnosis of diabetes, and 51.1 million office-based physician visits had diabetes as any listed diagnosis. In 2011, almost half of all people with diabetes in the United States had six or more office-based physician visits. Only 4% of people with diabetes did not have any office-based physician visits compared to 13% of people in the general U.S. population. People with diabetes were also more likely to visit the emergency room, with 30% having at least one visit compared to 20% of the general population. Fifty-three percent of people with diabetes had a dental visit in the past year, but 21% had not visited a dentist in more than 5 years. Ten percent of people with diabetes had phone contact with their physician?s office in the past 2 weeks, 5% used email to communicate with their physician, and 34% looked up health information on the internet. In 2010, 6.76 million hospitalizations listed diabetes as one of the discharge diagnoses; these accounted for 34.67 million hospital days. Diabetes was the primary discharge diagnosis for 622,000 hospitalizations. People with diabetes were 2.6 times more likely to be hospitalized in the past year than people without diabetes (21% vs. 8%). Having complications of diabetes was associated with hospitalization. Comorbid diabetic ketoacidosis, cardiovascular disease, and cardiac procedures were frequently present. Multiple hospitalizations were also common. In 2011, almost 30% of people with diabetes who were hospitalized had two or more hospitalizations. In 2004, 358,500 nursing home residents age ?55 years had diagnosed diabetes. They accounted for approximately 25% of the nursing home population. Residents with diabetes are more likely to be younger and nonwhite than residents without diabetes. More than 85% have comorbid cardiovascular disease, 63% have mental disorders, and 90% have two or more chronic conditions in addition to diabetes. Home health care agencies are an increasingly important source of long-term care, and 33% of people receiving home health care in 2007 had diabetes. The prevalence of diabetes is highest for home health care patients age 65?74 years. Home health care patients with diabetes are more likely to be middle-aged and nonwhite than patients without diabetes. More than 75% have comorbid cardiovascular disease, and 14% are receiving post-hospital aftercare. Seventy-two percent of home health care recipients have two or more chronic conditions in addition to diabetes, and limitations in activities of daily living are common. Because people with diabetes visit physician offices, hospital outpatient departments, and emergency rooms more frequently than people without diabetes and are more likely to be admitted to the hospital and nursing homes and to receive home health care, their medical costs are higher than for people without diabetes. Economic analyses performed by the American Diabetes Association in 2012 suggest that the excess economic costs attributable to diabetes in the United States were $245 billion, including $176 billion related to medical care for diabetes, its complications, and comorbidities and $69 billion related to time lost from work and usual activities due to illness, disability, and premature mortality. The costs of diabetes increased by approximately 200% from 2002 to 2012. While health care costs for inpatient and outpatient care attributable to diabetes have increased steadily over time, costs related to outpatient medications and supplies increased dramatically from 2007 to 2012. Americans with diabetes have direct medical costs 2.3 times higher than those without diabetes at an annual per capita excess cost of $7,888 attributable to their diabetes.
Summary
Ambulatory Medical Care for People With Diabetes
Diabetes-Related Hospitalizations and Hospital Utilization
Diabetes and Long-Term Care
Economic Impact of Diabetes
List of Abbreviations
References
Appendices
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33651530 NBK567965 National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (US) Bethesda (MD) Diabetes in America 2018

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