1. Crop genetic erosion: understanding and responding to loss of crop diversity.
Khoury CK, Brush S, Costich DE, Curry HA, de Haan S, Engels JMM, Guarino L, Hoban S, Mercer KL, Miller AJ, Nabhan GP, Perales HR, Richards C, Riggins C, Thormann I
The New phytologistNew PhytolCrop genetic erosion: understanding and responding to loss of crop diversity.84-11810.1111/nph.17733Crop diversity underpins the productivity, resilience and adaptive capacity of agriculture. Loss of this diversity, termed crop genetic erosion, is therefore concerning. While alarms regarding evident declines in crop diversity have been raised for over a century, the magnitude, trajectory, drivers and significance of these losses remain insufficiently understood. We outline the various definitions, measurements, scales and sources of information on crop genetic erosion. We then provide a synthesis of evidence regarding changes in the diversity of traditional crop landraces on farms, modern crop cultivars in agriculture, crop wild relatives in their natural habitats and crop genetic resources held in conservation repositories. This evidence indicates that marked losses, but also maintenance and increases in diversity, have occurred in all these contexts, the extent depending on species, taxonomic and geographic scale, and region, as well as analytical approach. We discuss steps needed to further advance knowledge around the agricultural and societal significance, as well as conservation implications, of crop genetic erosion. Finally, we propose actions to mitigate, stem and reverse further losses of crop diversity.© 2021 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2021 New Phytologist Foundation.KhouryColin KCK0000-0001-7893-5744International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT), Km 17, Recta Cali-Palmira, Apartado Aéreo 6713, 763537, Cali, Colombia.Department of Biology, Saint Louis University, 1 N. Grand Blvd, St Louis, MO, 63103, USA.San Diego Botanic Garden, 230 Quail Gardens Dr., Encinitas, CA, 92024, USA.BrushStephenS0000-0002-0412-4030University of California Davis, 1 Shields Ave., Davis, CA, 95616, USA.CostichDenise EDE0000-0002-5894-611XInternational Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT), Carretera México-Veracruz, Km. 45, El Batán, 56237, Texcoco, México.CurryHelen AnneHA0000-0001-9474-1528Department of History and Philosophy of Science, University of Cambridge, Free School Lane, Cambridge, CB2 3RH, UK.de HaanStefS0000-0001-8690-1886International Potato Center (CIP), Avenida La Molina 1895, La Molina, Apartado Postal 1558, Lima, Peru.EngelsJohannes M MJMM0000-0001-6256-6518Bioversity International, Via di San Domenico 1, 00153, Rome, Italy.GuarinoLuigiL0000-0003-1667-3851Global Crop Diversity Trust, Platz der Vereinten Nationen 7, 53113, Bonn, Germany.HobanSeanS0000-0002-0348-8449The Morton Arboretum, The Center for Tree Science, 4100 IL-53, Lisle, IL, 60532, USA.MercerKristin LKL0000-0003-4990-2227Department of Horticulture and Crop Science, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, 43210, USA.MillerAllison JAJ0000-0002-2722-9361Department of Biology, Saint Louis University, 1 N. Grand Blvd, St Louis, MO, 63103, USA.Donald Danforth Plant Science Center, 975 N Warson Rd, St Louis, MO, 63132, USA.NabhanGary PGPSouthwest Center and Institute of the Environment, University of Arizona, 1401 E. First St., PO Box 210185, Tucson, AZ, 85721-0185, USA.PeralesHugo RHR0000-0003-3431-5759Departamento de Agroecología, El Colegio de la Frontera Sur, San Cristóbal, Chiapas, 29290, México.RichardsChrisC0000-0002-9978-6079National Laboratory for Genetic Resources Preservation, United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, 1111 South Mason Street, Fort Collins, CO, 80521, USA.RigginsChanceC0000-0002-1926-022XDepartment of Crop Sciences, University of Illinois, 331 Edward R. Madigan Lab, 1201 W. Gregory Dr., Urbana, IL, 61801, USA.ThormannImkeI0000-0003-2703-9805Federal Office for Agriculture and Food (BLE), Information and Coordination Centre for Biological Diversity (IBV), Deichmanns Aue 29, 53179, Bonn, Germany.eng217968/Z/19/ZWT_Wellcome TrustUnited KingdomJournal ArticleResearch Support, Non-U.S. Gov'tResearch Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.Review20211020EnglandNew Phytol98828840028-646XIMAgricultureConservation of Natural ResourcesCrops, AgriculturalgeneticsEcosystemagrobiodiversitybiodiversity conservationcrop diversitycrop landracescrop wild relativesdiachronic diversityfood securityplant genetic resources2021052820210813202191460202217602021913934ppublish3451535810.1111/nph.17733References, 2022
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8. Dynamic shifts in social network structure and composition within a breeding hybrid population.
Zonana DM, Gee JM, Breed MD, Doak DF
The Journal of animal ecologyJ Anim EcolDynamic shifts in social network structure and composition within a breeding hybrid population.197-21110.1111/1365-2656.13314Mating behaviour and the timing of reproduction can inhibit genetic exchange between closely related species; however, these reproductive barriers are challenging to measure within natural populations. Social network analysis provides promising tools for studying the social context of hybridization, and the exchange of genetic variation, more generally. We test how social networks within a hybrid population of California Callipepla californica and Gambel's quail Callipepla gambelii change over discrete periods of a breeding season. We assess patterns of phenotypic and genotypic assortment, and ask whether altered associations between individuals (association rewiring), or changes to the composition of the population (individual turnover) drive network dynamics. We use genetic data to test whether social associations and relatedness between individuals correlate with patterns of parentage within the hybrid population. To achieve these aims, we combine RFID association data, phenotypic data and genomic measures with social network analyses. We adopt methods from the ecological network literature to quantify shifts in network structure and to partition changes into those due to individual turnover and association rewiring. We integrate genomic data into networks as node-level attributes (ancestry) and edges (relatedness, parentage) to test links between social and parentage networks. We show that rewiring of associations between individuals that persist across network periods, rather than individual turnover, drives the majority of the changes in network structure throughout the breeding season, and that the traits involved in phenotypic/genotypic assortment were highly dynamic over time. Social networks were randomly assorted based on genetic ancestry, suggesting weak behavioural reproductive isolation within this hybrid population. Finally, we show that the strength of associations within the social network, but not levels of genetic relatedness, predicts patterns of parentage. Social networks play an important role in population processes such as the transmission of disease and information, yet there has been less focus on how networks influence the exchange of genetic variation. By integrating analyses of social structure, phenotypic assortment and reproductive outcomes within a hybrid zone, we demonstrate the utility of social networks for analysing links between social context and gene flow within wild populations.© 2020 British Ecological Society.ZonanaDavid MDM0000-0002-1599-8913Department of Ecology & Evolutionary Biology, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, USA.GeeJennifer MJM0000-0001-8497-7262James San Jacinto Mountains Reserve, University of California - Riverside, University of California Natural Reserve System, Idyllwild, CA, USA.BreedMichael DMD0000-0002-4039-8354Department of Ecology & Evolutionary Biology, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, USA.DoakDaniel FDF0000-0001-8980-3392Environmental Studies Program, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, USA.engJournal ArticleResearch Support, Non-U.S. Gov't20200906EnglandJ Anim Ecol03765740021-8790IMAnimalsGene FlowGenotypeHybridization, GeneticPhenotypeSocial Networkinggene flowhybridizationkin structurenetwork rewiringparentage analysisphenotypic assortmentreproductive barrierssocial network dynamics2019082920200624202081160202142060202081160ppublish3277237210.1111/1365-2656.13314REFERENCES, 2021
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Nature genetics, 2020
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