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   Condylura cristata cristata 

Broader Terms:
   Condylura (star-nosed moles) 
   Condylura cristata (star-nosed mole) 

External Resources:

1.  Burrowing star-nosed moles (Condylura cristata) are not hypoxia tolerant.LinkIT
Devereaux MEM, Campbell KL, Munro D, Blier PU, Pamenter ME
The Journal of experimental biology, 2021

2.  Genome-wide adaptive evolution to underground stresses in subterranean mammals: Hypoxia adaption, immunity promotion, and sensory specialization.LinkIT
Jiang M, Shi L, Li X, Dong Q, Sun H, Du Y, Zhang Y, Shao T, Cheng H, Chen W, Wang Z
Ecology and evolution, 2020

3.  All in the Family - Touch Versus Olfaction in Moles.LinkIT
Catania KC
Anatomical record (Hoboken, N.J. : 2007)Anat Rec (Hoboken)All in the Family - Touch Versus Olfaction in Moles.65-7610.1002/ar.24057Here I review, compare, and contrast the neurobiology and behavior of the common, eastern mole (Scalopus aquaticus) and the star-nosed mole (Condylura cristata). These two species are part of the same family (Talpidae) and have similar body size and general morphology. But they differ in sensory specializations, complexity of neocortical organization, and behavior. The star-nosed mole has an elaborate mechanosensory organ-the star-consisting of 22 epidermal appendages (rays) covered with 25,000 touch domes called Eimer's organs. This densely innervated structure is represented in the neocortex in three different somatosensory maps, each visible in flattened neocortical sections as a series of 11 modules representing the 11 rays from the contralateral body. The 11th ray is greatly magnified in primary somatosensory cortex (S1). Behavioral studies show the star is moved in a saccadic manner and the 11th ray is a high-resolution tactile fovea, allowing star-nosed moles to forage on small prey with unprecedented speed and efficiency. In contrast, common mole noses lack Eimer's organs, their neocortex contains only two cortical maps of the nose, and they cannot localize small prey. Yet common moles have exceptional olfactory abilities, sniffing in stereo to rapidly localize discrete odor sources originating from larger prey. In addition, common moles are shown to track odorant trails laid down by moving prey. These results highlight the surprising abilities of species once thought to be simple, and the usefulness of diverse species in revealing general principles of brain organization and behavior. Anat Rec, 2019. © 2019 American Association for Anatomy.© 2019 American Association for Anatomy.CataniaKenneth CKC0000-0001-6309-4268Vanderbilt University, Department of Biological Sciences, VU Station B, Box 35-1634, Nashville, Tennessee.eng1456472Division of Integrative Organismal SystemsInternationalNSFInternationalJournal ArticleResearch Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.Review20190227United StatesAnat Rec (Hoboken)1012927751932-8486IMAnimalsBehavior, AnimalBrain MappingMechanoreceptorsphysiologyMolesanatomy & histologyclassificationphysiologySense OrgansphysiologySmellphysiologyTouchphysiologyTouch PerceptionS1Talpidaebehaviorbrainevolutionneocortexneuroethologyolfactorysniffsomatosensory2017052620170730201708192019186020211126020191860ppublish3061465910.1002/ar.24057Literature Cited, 2020</i></font><br><font color=#008000><br></font></span><br>4.  <a href= class=title>Somatosensory organ topography across the star of the star-nosed mole (Condylura cristata).</a><a href=><img src=linkit.png border=0 title='LinkIT' alt='LinkIT'></a> <br><span class=j>Sawyer EK, Catania KC<br><font color=gray><i>The Journal of comparative neurology, 2016</i></font><br><font color=#008000><br></font></span><br>5.  <a href= class=title>Compartmentation of the cerebellar cortex: adaptation to lifestyle in the star-nosed mole Condylura cristata.</a><a href=><img src=linkit.png border=0 title='LinkIT' alt='LinkIT'></a> <br><span class=j>Marzban H, Hoy N, Buchok M, Catania KC, Hawkes R<br><font color=gray><i>Cerebellum (London, England), 2015</i></font><br><font color=#008000><br></font></span><br>6.  <a href= class=title>Organization of the spinal trigeminal nucleus in star-nosed moles.</a><a href=><img src=linkit.png border=0 title='LinkIT' alt='LinkIT'></a> <br><span class=j>Sawyer EK, Leitch DB, Catania KC<br><font color=gray><i>The Journal of comparative neurology, 2014</i></font><br><font color=#008000><br></font></span><br>7.  <a href= class=title>Eyes underground: regression of visual protein networks in subterranean mammals.</a><a href=><img src=linkit.png border=0 title='LinkIT' alt='LinkIT'></a> <br><span class=j>Emerling CA, Springer MS<br><font color=gray><i>Molecular phylogenetics and evolution, 2014</i></font><br><font color=#008000><br></font></span><br>8.  <a href= class=title>Somatosensation, echolocation, and underwater sniffing: adaptations allow mammals without traditional olfactory capabilities to forage for food underwater.</a><a href=><img src=linkit.png border=0 title='LinkIT' alt='LinkIT'></a> <br><span class=j>Marriott S, Cowan E, Cohen J, Hallock RM<br><font color=gray><i>Zoological science, 2013</i></font><br><font color=#008000><br></font></span><br>9.  <a href= class=title>Origin and mechanism of thermal insensitivity in mole hemoglobins: a test of the 'additional' chloride binding site hypothesis.</a><a href=><img src=linkit.png border=0 title='LinkIT' alt='LinkIT'></a> <br><span class=j>Signore AV, Stetefeld J, Weber RE, Campbell KL<br><font color=gray><i>The Journal of experimental biology, 2012</i></font><br><font color=#008000><br></font></span><br>10.  <a href= class=title>A star in the brainstem reveals the first step of cortical magnification.</a><a href=><img src=linkit.png border=0 title='LinkIT' alt='LinkIT'></a> <br><span class=j>Catania KC, Leitch DB, Gauthier D<br><font color=gray><i>PloS one, 2011</i></font><br><font color=#008000><br></font></span><br><br><br><table cellspacing=0 cellpadding=0 align=center><tr valign=bottom><td align=center><img src=p.png border=0></td><td align=center><img src=o_red.png border=0></td><td align=center><a href=><img src=o_yellow.png border=0></a></td><td align=center><a href=><img src=o_yellow.png border=0></a></td><td align=center><a href=><img src=rtal.png border=0></a></td></tr><td align=center></td><td align=center>1</td><td align=center><a href=>2</a></td><td align=center><a href=>3</a></td><td align=center><a href=>»</a></td></tr></table></table></tr></table></td><script src="" type="text/javascript"> </script> <script type="text/javascript"> _uacct = "UA-634822-1"; urchinTracker(); </script> </BODY> </HTML>