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Broader Terms:
   Diapsida (Diapsid) 
   Sauria (lizards) 

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   Aves (birds) 
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Latest Articles on Archosauria from uBioRSS


Aves
Simon Rerucha - BioLib

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Common Names: ארכוזאוריה, 조룡류, شاه‌مولکان, Archosaur



1.  Osteology and relationships of Revueltosaurus callenderi (Archosauria: Suchia) from the Upper Triassic (Norian) Chinle Formation of Petrified Forest National Park, Arizona, United States.LinkIT
Parker WG, Nesbitt SJ, Irmis RB, Martz JW, Marsh AD, Brown MA, Stocker MR, Werning S
Anatomical record (Hoboken, N.J. : 2007)Anat Rec (Hoboken)Osteology and relationships of Revueltosaurus callenderi (Archosauria: Suchia) from the Upper Triassic (Norian) Chinle Formation of Petrified Forest National Park, Arizona, United States.10.1002/ar.24757Once known solely from dental material and thought to represent an early ornithischian dinosaur, the early-diverging pseudosuchian Revueltosaurus callenderi is described from a minimum of 12 skeletons from a monodominant bonebed in the upper part of the Chinle Formation of Arizona. This material includes nearly the entire skeleton and possesses a combination of plesiomorphic and derived character states that help clarify ingroup relationships within Pseudosuchia. A phylogenetic analysis recovers R. callenderi in a clade with Aetosauria and Acaenasuchus geoffreyi that is named Aetosauriformes. Key autapomorphies of R. callenderi include a skull that is longer than the femur, a complete carapace of dermal armor including paramedian and lateral rows, as well as ventral osteoderms, and a tail end sheathed in bone. Histology of the femur and associated osteoderms demonstrate that R. callenderi was slow growing and that the individuals from the bonebed were not young juveniles but had not ceased growing. A review of other material assigned to Revueltosaurus concludes that the genus cannot be adequately diagnosed based on the type materials of the three assigned species and that only R. callenderi can be confidently referred to Revueltosaurus.© 2021 The Authors. The Anatomical Record published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of American Association for Anatomy. This article has been contributed to by US Government employees and their work is in the public domain in the USA.ParkerWilliam GWGhttps://orcid.org/0000-0002-6005-7098Department of Resource Management and Science, Petrified Forest National Park, Petrified Forest, Arizona, USA.NesbittSterling JSJhttps://orcid.org/0000-0002-7017-1652Department of Geosciences, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia, USA.IrmisRandall BRBNatural History Museum of Utah, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA.Department of Geology and Geophysics, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA.MartzJeffrey WJWDepartment of Natural Sciences, University of Houston-Downtown, Houston, Texas, USA.MarshAdam DADhttps://orcid.org/0000-0002-3223-8940Department of Resource Management and Science, Petrified Forest National Park, Petrified Forest, Arizona, USA.BrownMatthew AMAhttps://orcid.org/0000-0002-2713-1161Texas Vertebrate Paleontology Collections, The Jackson School of Geosciences, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas, USA.StockerMichelle RMRhttps://orcid.org/0000-0002-6473-8691Department of Geosciences, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia, USA.WerningSarahShttps://orcid.org/0000-0002-2405-595XDepartment of Anatomy, Des Moines University, Des Moines, Iowa, USA.engJournal Article20210929United StatesAnat Rec (Hoboken)1012927751932-8486IMAetosauriformesKrzyzanowkisaurusPseudosuchiahistologyphylogeny202106242021012220210709202193060202193060202192991aheadofprint3458585010.1002/ar.24757REFERENCES, 2021</i></font><br><font color=#008000>http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=0<br></font></span><br>2.  <a href=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=0 class=title>Intraspecific variation in the axial skeleton of Aetosauroides scagliai (<b>Archosauria</b>: Aetosauria) and its implications for the aetosaur diversity of the Late Triassic of Brazil.</a><a href=http://ubio.org/tools/linkit.php?map%5B%5D=all&link_type=2&url=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=0><img src=linkit.png border=0 title='LinkIT' alt='LinkIT'></a> <br><span class=j>Paes-Neto VD, Desojo JB, Brust ACB, Schultz CL, DA-Rosa ÁAS, Soares MB<br><font color=gray><i>Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciencias, 2021</i></font><br><font color=#008000>http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=0<br></font></span><br>3.  <a href=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=0 class=title>New specimens provide insights into the anatomy of the dinosauriform Lewisuchus admixtus Romer, 1972 from the upper Triassic levels of the Chañares Formation, NW Argentina.</a><a href=http://ubio.org/tools/linkit.php?map%5B%5D=all&link_type=2&url=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=0><img src=linkit.png border=0 title='LinkIT' alt='LinkIT'></a> <br><span class=j>Agnolín F, Brissón Egli F, Ezcurra MD, Langer MC, Novas F<br><font color=gray><i>Anatomical record (Hoboken, N.J. : 2007)Anat Rec (Hoboken)New specimens provide insights into the anatomy of the dinosauriform Lewisuchus admixtus Romer, 1972 from the upper Triassic levels of the Chañares Formation, NW Argentina.10.1002/ar.24731Lewisuchus admixtus is an early dinosauriform described by Alfred Romer in 1972 on the basis of a single, incomplete skeleton, collected in lower Upper Triassic rocks of the renowned Chañares Formation, at the Los Chañares type-locality, La Rioja Province, north-western Argentina. Recent field explorations to the type-locality resulted in the discovery of two partial articulated skeletons, which provide significant novel information. The cranial bones, presacral series, femur, tibia, and proximal tarsals of the new specimens match the preserved overlapping anatomy of the holotype and previously referred specimens of L. admixtus, including the presence of unique combination of character states among dinosauriforms (anterior presacral column with additional ossification on the top of neural spines, dorsal neural spines fan-shaped, anterior surface of the astragalus with a dorsally curved groove, and an inflated area on the anterior portion of the medial surface of this bone). This new information improves our understanding of the anatomy and taxonomy of early dinosauriforms and reinforces the role of Argentinean beds on the study of the origin of dinosaurs.© 2021 American Association for Anatomy.AgnolínFedericoFhttps://orcid.org/0000-0001-5073-561XLaboratorio de Anatomía Comparada y Evolución de los Vertebrados, CONICET-Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales "Bernardino Rivadavia,", Buenos Aires, Argentina.Fundación de Historia Natural "Félix de Azara," Departamento de Ciencias Naturales y Antropología, Universidad Maimónides, Buenos Aires, Argentina.Brissón EgliFedericoFhttps://orcid.org/0000-0001-8037-5467Laboratorio de Anatomía Comparada y Evolución de los Vertebrados, CONICET-Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales "Bernardino Rivadavia,", Buenos Aires, Argentina.EzcurraMartín DMDhttps://orcid.org/0000-0002-6000-6450Sección Paleontología de Vertebrados, CONICET-Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales "Bernardino Rivadavia", Buenos Aires, Argentina.LangerMax CMCDepartamento de Biologia-FFCLRP, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil.NovasFernandoFLaboratorio de Anatomía Comparada y Evolución de los Vertebrados, CONICET-Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales "Bernardino Rivadavia,", Buenos Aires, Argentina.engMr. Coleman Burke (New York)PICT 2018-1390Agencia Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y TécnicasPICT 2018-1186Agencia Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y TécnicasJournal Article20210806United StatesAnat Rec (Hoboken)1012927751932-8486IMArchosauriaDinosauriformesLate TriassicLewisuchus admixtusSouth America20210617202105172021062320218760202187602021861730aheadofprint3435841510.1002/ar.24731REFERENCES, 2021</i></font><br><font color=#008000>http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=0<br></font></span><br>4.  <a href=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=0 class=title>Palaeoneurology of the early cretaceous iguanodont Proa valdearinnoensis and its bearing on the parallel developments of cognitive abilities in theropod and ornithopod dinosaurs.</a><a href=http://ubio.org/tools/linkit.php?map%5B%5D=all&link_type=2&url=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=0><img src=linkit.png border=0 title='LinkIT' alt='LinkIT'></a> <br><span class=j>Knoll F, Lautenschlager S, Kawabe S, Martínez G, Espílez E, Mampel L, Alcalá L<br><font color=gray><i>The Journal of comparative neurologyJ Comp NeurolPalaeoneurology of the early cretaceous iguanodont Proa valdearinnoensis and its bearing on the parallel developments of cognitive abilities in theropod and ornithopod dinosaurs.10.1002/cne.25224Proa valdearinnoensis is a relatively large-headed and stocky iguanodontian dinosaur from the latest Early Cretaceous of Spain. Its braincase is known from three specimens. Similar to that of other dinosaurs, it shows a mosaic ossification pattern in which most of the bones seem to have fused together indistinguishably while a few (frontoparietal, basioccipital) might have remained loosely attached. The endocasts of the three specimens are described based on CT data and digital reconstructions. They show unmistakable morphological similarities with the endocast of closely related taxa, such as Sirindhorna khoratensis (which is close in age but from Thailand). This supports a high conservatism of the endocranial cavity. The issue of volumetric correspondence between endocranial cavity and brain in dinosaurs is analyzed. Although a brain-to-endocranial cavity (BEC) index of 0.50 has been traditionally used, we employ instead 0.73. This is indeed the mid-value between the situation in adults of Alligator mississippiensis and Gallus gallus, which are members of the extant bracketing taxa of dinosaurs (Crocodilia and Aves). We thence gauge the level of encephalization of P. valdearinnoensis through the calculation of the encephalization quotient (EQ), which remains valuable as a metric for assessing the degree of cognitive function in extinct taxa, especially those with fully ossified braincases like dinosaurs and other archosaurs. The EQ obtained for P. valdearinnoensis (3.611) suggests that this species was significantly more encephalized than most if not all extant nonavian, nonmammalian amniotes. Our work adds to the growing body of data concerning theoretical cognitive capabilities in dinosaurs and supports the idea that an increasing encephalization was fostered not only in theropods but also in parallel in the shorter-lived lineage of ornithopods. P. valdearinnoensis was ill-equipped to respond to theropod dinosaurs and possibly lived in groups as a strategy to mitigate the risk of being predated upon. We hypothesize that group-living and protracted caring of juveniles in this and possibly many other iguanodontian ornithopods favored a degree of encephalization that was outstanding by reptile standards.© 2021 Wiley Periodicals LLC.KnollFabienFhttps://orcid.org/0000-0001-7822-8740Fundación ARAID, Zaragoza, Spain.Fundación Conjunto Paleontológico de Teruel-Dinópolis, Teruel, Spain.Departamento de Paleobiología, Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales-CSIC, Madrid, Spain.LautenschlagerStephanSSchool of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK.KawabeSoichiroSInstitute of Dinosaur Research, Fukui Prefectural University, Fukui, Japan.Fukui Prefectural Dinosaur Museum, Fukui, Japan.MartínezGloriaGServicio de Radiodiagnóstico, Hospital General Obispo Polanco, Teruel, Spain.EspílezEduardoEFundación Conjunto Paleontológico de Teruel-Dinópolis, Teruel, Spain.MampelLuisLFundación Conjunto Paleontológico de Teruel-Dinópolis, Teruel, Spain.AlcaláLuisLFundación Conjunto Paleontológico de Teruel-Dinópolis, Teruel, Spain.engE04_20R FOCONTURGobierno de AragónCGL2017-89123-PMinisterio de Ciencia, Innovación y UniversidadesJournal Article20210801United StatesJ Comp Neurol04060410021-9967IMArchosauriaevolutionintelligencepalaeoneuroanatomy20210721202105142021072220218260202182602021812115aheadofprint3433376310.1002/cne.25224REFERENCES, 2021</i></font><br><font color=#008000>http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=0<br></font></span><br>5.  <a href=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=0 class=title>Histological analysis of ankylothecodonty in Silesauridae (<b>Archosauria</b>: Dinosauriformes) and its implications for the evolution of dinosaur tooth attachment.</a><a href=http://ubio.org/tools/linkit.php?map%5B%5D=all&link_type=2&url=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=0><img src=linkit.png border=0 title='LinkIT' alt='LinkIT'></a> <br><span class=j>Mestriner G, LeBlanc A, Nesbitt SJ, Marsola JCA, Irmis RB, Da-Rosa ÁAS, Ribeiro AM, Ferigolo J, Langer M<br><font color=gray><i>Anatomical record (Hoboken, N.J. : 2007)Anat Rec (Hoboken)Histological analysis of ankylothecodonty in Silesauridae (Archosauria: Dinosauriformes) and its implications for the evolution of dinosaur tooth attachment.10.1002/ar.24679Dinosaurs possess a form of tooth attachment wherein an unmineralized periodontal ligament suspends each tooth within a socket, similar to the condition in mammals and crocodylians. However, little information is known about tooth attachment and implantation in their close relatives, the silesaurids. We conducted a histological survey of several silesaurid taxa to determine the nature of tooth attachment in this phylogenetically and paleoecologically important group of archosaurs. Our histological data demonstrate that these early dinosauriforms do not exhibit the crocodilian/dinosaur condition of a permanent gomphosis, nor the rapid ankylosis that is plesiomorphic for amniotes. Instead, all sampled silesaurids exhibit delayed ankylosis, a condition in which teeth pass through a prolonged stage where the teeth are suspended in sockets by a periodontal ligament, followed by eventual mineralization and fusion of the tooth to the jaws. This suggests that tooth attachment in crocodylians and dinosaurs represent the further retention of an early ontogenetic stage compared to silesaurids, a paedomorphic trend that is mirrored in the evolution of synapsid tooth attachment. It also suggests that the dinosaur and crocodylian gomphosis was convergently acquired via heterochrony or, less likely, that the silesaurid condition represents a reversal to a plesiomorphic state. Moreover, if Silesauridae is nested within Ornithischia, a permanent gomphosis could be convergent between the two main dinosaur lineages, Ornithischia and Saurischia. These results demonstrate that dental characters in early archosaur phylogenies must be chosen and defined carefully, taking into account the relative duration of the different phases of dental ontogeny.© 2021 American Association for Anatomy.MestrinerGabrielGhttps://orcid.org/0000-0002-5542-1772Departamento de Biologia, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil.LeBlancAaronAhttps://orcid.org/0000-0002-2497-1296Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.Faculty of Dentistry, Oral, & Craniofacial Sciences, King's College London, London, UK.NesbittSterling JSJhttps://orcid.org/0000-0002-7017-1652Department of Geosciences, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia, USA.MarsolaJúlio C AJCAhttps://orcid.org/0000-0001-5290-7884Departamento de Biologia, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil.Programa de Pós-Graduação em Biologia Animal, Instituto de Biociências, Letras e Ciências Exatas, UNESP Campus de São José do Rio Preto, Sao Paulo, Brazil.IrmisRandall BRBNatural History Museum of Utah and Department of Geology & Geophysics, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA.Da-RosaÁtila Augusto StockÁAShttps://orcid.org/0000-0003-4074-0794Laboratório de Estratigrafia e Paleobiologia, Departamento de Geociências, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.RibeiroAna MariaAMMuseu de Ciências Naturais, Secretaria do Meio Ambiente e Infraestrutura, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil.FerigoloJorgeJMuseu de Ciências Naturais, Secretaria do Meio Ambiente e Infraestrutura, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil.LangerMaxMhttps://orcid.org/0000-0003-1009-4605Departamento de Biologia, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil.eng1349650Center for Hierarchical Manufacturing, National Science Foundation1349667Center for Hierarchical Manufacturing, National Science Foundation88887468538/2019-00Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior2018/24031-6Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo2019/07510-0Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São PauloJournal Article20210522United StatesAnat Rec (Hoboken)1012927751932-8486IMSharpey fibersalveolar bonecementumdental histologyheterochronyontogenyperiodontal ligament2021041920210309202104202021523602021523602021522848aheadofprint3402173910.1002/ar.24679REFERENCES, 2021</i></font><br><font color=#008000>http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=0<br></font></span><br>6.  <a href=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=0 class=title>Osteology, relationships and functional morphology of <i>Weigeltisaurus jaekeli</i> (Diapsida, Weigeltisauridae) based on a complete skeleton from the Upper Permian Kupferschiefer of Germany.</a><a href=http://ubio.org/tools/linkit.php?map%5B%5D=all&link_type=2&url=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=0><img src=linkit.png border=0 title='LinkIT' alt='LinkIT'></a> <br><span class=j>Pritchard AC, Sues HD, Scott D, Reisz RR<br><font color=gray><i>PeerJ, 2021</i></font><br><font color=#008000>http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=0<br></font></span><br>7.  <a href=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=0 class=title>The early origin of a birdlike inner ear and the evolution of dinosaurian movement and vocalization.</a><a href=http://ubio.org/tools/linkit.php?map%5B%5D=all&link_type=2&url=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=0><img src=linkit.png border=0 title='LinkIT' alt='LinkIT'></a> <br><span class=j>Hanson M, Hoffman EA, Norell MA, Bhullar BS<br><font color=gray><i>Science (New York, N.Y.), 2021</i></font><br><font color=#008000>http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=0<br></font></span><br>8.  <a href=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=0 class=title>Braincase anatomy of the Paleocene crocodyliform <i>Rhabdognathus</i> revealed through high resolution computed tomography.</a><a href=http://ubio.org/tools/linkit.php?map%5B%5D=all&link_type=2&url=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=0><img src=linkit.png border=0 title='LinkIT' alt='LinkIT'></a> <br><span class=j>Erb A, Turner AH<br><font color=gray><i>PeerJ, 2021</i></font><br><font color=#008000>http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=0<br></font></span><br>9.  <a href=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=0 class=title>Anatomy, ontogeny, and evolution of the <b>archosauria</b>n respiratory system: A case study on Alligator mississippiensis and Struthio camelus.</a><a href=http://ubio.org/tools/linkit.php?map%5B%5D=all&link_type=2&url=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=0><img src=linkit.png border=0 title='LinkIT' alt='LinkIT'></a> <br><span class=j>Schachner ER, Hedrick BP, Richbourg HA, Hutchinson JR, Farmer CG<br><font color=gray><i>Journal of anatomyJ AnatAnatomy, ontogeny, and evolution of the archosaurian respiratory system: A case study on Alligator mississippiensis and Struthio camelus.845-87310.1111/joa.13358The avian lung is highly specialized and is both functionally and morphologically distinct from that of their closest extant relatives, the crocodilians. It is highly partitioned, with a unidirectionally ventilated and immobilized gas-exchanging lung, and functionally decoupled, compliant, poorly vascularized ventilatory air-sacs. To understand the evolutionary history of the archosaurian respiratory system, it is essential to determine which anatomical characteristics are shared between birds and crocodilians and the role these shared traits play in their respective respiratory biology. To begin to address this larger question, we examined the anatomy of the lung and bronchial tree of 10 American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) and 11 ostriches (Struthio camelus) across an ontogenetic series using traditional and micro-computed tomography (µCT), three-dimensional (3D) digital models, and morphometry. Intraspecific variation and left to right asymmetry were present in certain aspects of the bronchial tree of both taxa but was particularly evident in the cardiac (medial) region of the lungs of alligators and the caudal aspect of the bronchial tree in both species. The cross-sectional area of the primary bronchus at the level of the major secondary airways and cross-sectional area of ostia scaled either isometrically or negatively allometrically in alligators and isometrically or positively allometrically in ostriches with respect to body mass. Of 15 lung metrics, five were significantly different between the alligator and ostrich, suggesting that these aspects of the lung are more interspecifically plastic in archosaurs. One metric, the distances between the carina and each of the major secondary airways, had minimal intraspecific or ontogenetic variation in both alligators and ostriches, and thus may be a conserved trait in both taxa. In contrast to previous descriptions, the 3D digital models and CT scan data demonstrate that the pulmonary diverticula pneumatize the axial skeleton of the ostrich directly from the gas-exchanging pulmonary tissues instead of the air sacs. Global and specific comparisons between the bronchial topography of the alligator and ostrich reveal multiple possible homologies, suggesting that certain structural aspects of the bronchial tree are likely conserved across Archosauria, and may have been present in the ancestral archosaurian lung.© 2020 Anatomical Society.SchachnerEmma RER0000-0002-8636-925XDepartment of Cell Biology & Anatomy, School of Medicine, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, LA, USA.HedrickBrandon PBP0000-0003-4446-3405Department of Cell Biology & Anatomy, School of Medicine, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, LA, USA.RichbourgHeather AHA0000-0002-4081-1073Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA.HutchinsonJohn RJR0000-0002-6767-7038Department of Comparative Biomedical Sciences, Structure & Motion Laboratory, Royal Veterinary College, University of London, Hatfield, UK.FarmerC GCG0000-0003-4532-7755Department of Biology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA.engDryad10.5061/dryad.3xsj3txdhComparative StudyJournal ArticleResearch Support, Non-U.S. Gov'tResearch Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.20201220EnglandJ Anat01371620021-8782IMAlligators and Crocodilesanatomy & histologyAnatomic VariationAnimalsBiological EvolutionBronchianatomy & histologyLunganatomy & histologyStruthioniformesanatomy & histology3D modelingAvesCrocodyliacomputed tomographylungspulmonary20200816202010132020102320230401202012226020218106020201221612ppublish3334530110.1111/joa.13358PMC7930774REFERENCES, 2021</i></font><br><font color=#008000>http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=0<br></font></span><br>10.  <a href=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=0 class=title>Assessing ontogenetic maturity in extinct saurian reptiles.</a><a href=http://ubio.org/tools/linkit.php?map%5B%5D=all&link_type=2&url=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=0><img src=linkit.png border=0 title='LinkIT' alt='LinkIT'></a> <br><span class=j>Griffin CT, Stocker MR, Colleary C, Stefanic CM, Lessner EJ, Riegler M, Formoso K, Koeller K, Nesbitt SJ<br><font color=gray><i>Biological reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical SocietyBiol Rev Camb Philos SocAssessing ontogenetic maturity in extinct saurian reptiles.10.1111/brv.12666Morphology forms the most fundamental level of data in vertebrate palaeontology because it is through interpretations of morphology that taxa are identified, creating the basis for broad evolutionary and palaeobiological hypotheses. Assessing maturity is one of the most basic aspects of morphological interpretation and provides the means to study the evolution of ontogenetic changes, population structure and palaeoecology, life-history strategies, and heterochrony along evolutionary lineages that would otherwise be lost to time. Saurian reptiles (the least-inclusive clade containing Lepidosauria and Archosauria) have remained an incredibly diverse, numerous, and disparate clade through their ~260-million-year history. Because of the great disparity in this group, assessing maturity of saurian reptiles is difficult, fraught with methodological and terminological ambiguity. We compiled a novel database of literature, assembling >900 individual instances of saurian maturity assessment, to examine critically how saurian maturity has been diagnosed. We review the often inexact and inconsistent terminology used in saurian maturity assessment (e.g. 'juvenile', 'mature') and provide routes for better clarity and cross-study coherence. We describe the various methods that have been used to assess maturity in every major saurian group, integrating data from both extant and extinct taxa to give a full account of the current state of the field and providing method-specific pitfalls, best practices, and fruitful directions for future research. We recommend that a new standard subsection, 'Ontogenetic Assessment', be added to the Systematic Palaeontology portions of descriptive studies to provide explicit ontogenetic diagnoses with clear criteria. Because the utility of different ontogenetic criteria is highly subclade dependent among saurians, even for widely used methods (e.g. neurocentral suture fusion), we recommend that phylogenetic context, preferably in the form of a phylogenetic bracket, be used to justify the use of a maturity assessment method. Different methods should be used in conjunction as independent lines of evidence when assessing maturity, instead of an ontogenetic diagnosis resting entirely on a single criterion, which is common in the literature. Critically, there is a need for data from extant taxa with well-represented growth series to be integrated with the fossil record to ground maturity assessments of extinct taxa in well-constrained, empirically tested methods.© 2020 Cambridge Philosophical Society.GriffinChristopher TCThttps://orcid.org/0000-0003-3201-1866Department of Geosciences, Virginia Tech, 926 West Campus Drive, Blacksburg, VA, 24061, U.S.A.StockerMichelle RMRDepartment of Geosciences, Virginia Tech, 926 West Campus Drive, Blacksburg, VA, 24061, U.S.A.CollearyCaitlinCDepartment of Geosciences, Virginia Tech, 926 West Campus Drive, Blacksburg, VA, 24061, U.S.A.Department of Vertebrate Paleontology, Cleveland Museum of Natural History, 1 Wade Oval Drive, Cleveland, OH, 44106, U.S.A.StefanicCandice MCMDepartment of Geosciences, Virginia Tech, 926 West Campus Drive, Blacksburg, VA, 24061, U.S.A.Department of Anatomical Sciences, Stony Brook University, 100 Nicolls Road, Stony Brook, NY, 11794, U.S.A.LessnerEmily JEJDepartment of Geosciences, Virginia Tech, 926 West Campus Drive, Blacksburg, VA, 24061, U.S.A.Department of Pathology and Anatomical Sciences, University of Missouri, 1 Hospital Drive, Columbia, MO, 65212, U.S.A.RieglerMitchellMDepartment of Geosciences, Virginia Tech, 926 West Campus Drive, Blacksburg, VA, 24061, U.S.A.Department of Geological Sciences, University of Florida, 241 Williamson Hall, Gainesville, FL, 32611, U.S.A.FormosoKierstenKDepartment of Geosciences, Virginia Tech, 926 West Campus Drive, Blacksburg, VA, 24061, U.S.A.Department of Earth Sciences, University of Southern California, 3651 Trousdale Pkwy, Los Angeles, CA, 90089, U.S.A.Dinosaur Institute, Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, 900 W Exposition Boulevard, Los Angeles, CA, 90007, U.S.A.KoellerKristaKDepartment of Geosciences, Virginia Tech, 926 West Campus Drive, Blacksburg, VA, 24061, U.S.A.Department of Biology, University of Florida, 220 Bartram Hall, Gainesville, FL, 32611, U.S.A.NesbittSterling JSJDepartment of Geosciences, Virginia Tech, 926 West Campus Drive, Blacksburg, VA, 24061, U.S.A.engGraduate Research Fellowship ProgramNational Science FoundationJournal Article20201202EnglandBiol Rev Camb Philos Soc04145760006-3231IMdevelopmentgrowthhistologymaturitymorphologyontogenetic seriesontogenyreptilesauria2020052920201009202010282020128549202012960202012960aheadofprint3328932210.1111/brv.12666REFERENCES, 2020</i></font><br><font color=#008000>http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=0<br></font></span><br><br><br><table cellspacing=0 cellpadding=0 align=center><tr valign=bottom><td align=center><img src=p.png border=0></td><td align=center><img src=o_red.png border=0></td><td align=center><a href=http://ubio.org/portal/index.php?search=Archosauria&category=l&client=pubmed&startPage=2><img src=o_yellow.png border=0></a></td><td align=center><a 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